aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/pySim-shell.py
blob: e228038d5ce3d4efce4bb58488090629cbc8d219 (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
#!/usr/bin/env python3

# Interactive shell for working with SIM / UICC / USIM / ISIM cards
#
# (C) 2021 by Harald Welte <laforge@osmocom.org>
#
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

from typing import List

import json

import cmd2
from cmd2 import style, fg, bg
from cmd2 import CommandSet, with_default_category, with_argparser
import argparse

import os
import sys
from pathlib import Path

from pySim.ts_51_011 import EF, DF, EF_SST_map, EF_AD_mode_map
from pySim.ts_31_102 import EF_UST_map, EF_USIM_ADF_map
from pySim.ts_31_103 import EF_IST_map, EF_ISIM_ADF_map

from pySim.exceptions import *
from pySim.commands import SimCardCommands
from pySim.transport import init_reader, ApduTracer, argparse_add_reader_args
from pySim.cards import card_detect, Card
from pySim.utils import h2b, swap_nibbles, rpad, h2s, JsonEncoder
from pySim.utils import dec_st, sanitize_pin_adm, tabulate_str_list, is_hex
from pySim.card_handler import card_handler

from pySim.filesystem import CardMF, RuntimeState, CardDF, CardADF
from pySim.ts_51_011 import CardProfileSIM, DF_TELECOM, DF_GSM
from pySim.ts_102_221 import CardProfileUICC
from pySim.ts_31_102 import CardApplicationUSIM
from pySim.ts_31_103 import CardApplicationISIM

from pySim.card_key_provider import CardKeyProviderCsv, card_key_provider_register, card_key_provider_get_field


class PysimApp(cmd2.Cmd):
	CUSTOM_CATEGORY = 'pySim Commands'
	def __init__(self, card, rs, script = None):
		basic_commands = [Iso7816Commands(), PySimCommands()]
		super().__init__(persistent_history_file='~/.pysim_shell_history', allow_cli_args=False,
				 use_ipython=True, auto_load_commands=False, command_sets=basic_commands, startup_script=script)
		self.intro = style('Welcome to pySim-shell!', fg=fg.red)
		self.default_category = 'pySim-shell built-in commands'
		self.card = card
		iccid, sw = self.card.read_iccid()
		self.iccid = iccid
		self.rs = rs
		self.py_locals = { 'card': self.card, 'rs' : self.rs }
		self.numeric_path = False
		self.add_settable(cmd2.Settable('numeric_path', bool, 'Print File IDs instead of names',
						  onchange_cb=self._onchange_numeric_path))
		self.conserve_write = True
		self.add_settable(cmd2.Settable('conserve_write', bool, 'Read and compare before write',
						  onchange_cb=self._onchange_conserve_write))
		self.update_prompt()
		self.json_pretty_print = True
		self.add_settable(cmd2.Settable('json_pretty_print', bool, 'Pretty-Print JSON output'))
		self.apdu_trace = False
		self.add_settable(cmd2.Settable('apdu_trace', bool, 'Trace and display APDUs exchanged with card',
						  onchange_cb=self._onchange_apdu_trace))

	def poutput_json(self, data, force_no_pretty = False):
		"""like cmd2.poutput() but for a JSON serializable dict."""
		if force_no_pretty or self.json_pretty_print == False:
			output = json.dumps(data, cls=JsonEncoder)
		else:
			output = json.dumps(data, cls=JsonEncoder, indent=4)
		self.poutput(output)

	def _onchange_numeric_path(self, param_name, old, new):
		self.update_prompt()

	def _onchange_conserve_write(self, param_name, old, new):
		self.rs.conserve_write = new

	def _onchange_apdu_trace(self, param_name, old, new):
		if new == True:
			self.card._scc._tp.apdu_tracer = self.Cmd2ApduTracer(self)
		else:
			self.card._scc._tp.apdu_tracer = None

	class Cmd2ApduTracer(ApduTracer):
		def __init__(self, cmd2_app):
			self.cmd2 = app

		def trace_response(self, cmd, sw, resp):
			self.cmd2.poutput("-> %s %s" % (cmd[:10], cmd[10:]))
			self.cmd2.poutput("<- %s: %s" % (sw, resp))

	def update_prompt(self):
		path_list = self.rs.selected_file.fully_qualified_path(not self.numeric_path)
		self.prompt = 'pySIM-shell (%s)> ' % ('/'.join(path_list))

	@cmd2.with_category(CUSTOM_CATEGORY)
	def do_intro(self, _):
		"""Display the intro banner"""
		self.poutput(self.intro)

	@cmd2.with_category(CUSTOM_CATEGORY)
	def do_verify_adm(self, arg):
		"""VERIFY the ADM1 PIN"""
		if arg:
			# use specified ADM-PIN
			pin_adm = sanitize_pin_adm(arg)
		else:
			# try to find an ADM-PIN if none is specified
			result = card_key_provider_get_field('ADM1', key='ICCID', value=self.iccid)
			pin_adm = sanitize_pin_adm(result)
			if pin_adm:
				self.poutput("found ADM-PIN '%s' for ICCID '%s'" % (result, self.iccid))
			else:
				self.poutput("cannot find ADM-PIN for ICCID '%s'" % (self.iccid))
				return

		if pin_adm:
			self.card.verify_adm(h2b(pin_adm))
		else:
			self.poutput("error: cannot authenticate, no adm-pin!")

	@cmd2.with_category(CUSTOM_CATEGORY)
	def do_desc(self, opts):
		"""Display human readable file description for the currently selected file"""
		desc = self.rs.selected_file.desc
		if desc:
			self.poutput(desc)
		else:
			self.poutput("no description available")

@with_default_category('pySim Commands')
class PySimCommands(CommandSet):
	def __init__(self):
		super().__init__()

	dir_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	dir_parser.add_argument('--fids', help='Show file identifiers', action='store_true')
	dir_parser.add_argument('--names', help='Show file names', action='store_true')
	dir_parser.add_argument('--apps', help='Show applications', action='store_true')
	dir_parser.add_argument('--all', help='Show all selectable identifiers and names', action='store_true')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(dir_parser)
	def do_dir(self, opts):
		"""Show a listing of files available in currently selected DF or MF"""
		if opts.all:
			flags = []
		elif opts.fids or opts.names or opts.apps:
			flags = ['PARENT', 'SELF']
			if opts.fids:
				flags += ['FIDS', 'AIDS']
			if opts.names:
				flags += ['FNAMES', 'ANAMES']
			if opts.apps:
				flags += ['ANAMES', 'AIDS']
		else:
			flags = ['PARENT', 'SELF', 'FNAMES', 'ANAMES']
		selectables = list(self._cmd.rs.selected_file.get_selectable_names(flags = flags))
		directory_str = tabulate_str_list(selectables, width = 79, hspace = 2, lspace = 1, align_left = True)
		path_list = self._cmd.rs.selected_file.fully_qualified_path(True)
		self._cmd.poutput('/'.join(path_list))
		path_list = self._cmd.rs.selected_file.fully_qualified_path(False)
		self._cmd.poutput('/'.join(path_list))
		self._cmd.poutput(directory_str)
		self._cmd.poutput("%d files" % len(selectables))

	def walk(self, indent = 0, action = None, context = None):
		"""Recursively walk through the file system, starting at the currently selected DF"""
		files = self._cmd.rs.selected_file.get_selectables(flags = ['FNAMES', 'ANAMES'])
		for f in files:
			if not action:
				output_str = "  " * indent + str(f) + (" " * 250)
				output_str = output_str[0:25]
				if isinstance(files[f], CardADF):
					output_str += " " + str(files[f].aid)
				else:
					output_str += " " + str(files[f].fid)
				output_str += " " + str(files[f].desc)
				self._cmd.poutput(output_str)

			if isinstance(files[f], CardDF):
				skip_df=False
				try:
					fcp_dec = self._cmd.rs.select(f, self._cmd)
				except Exception as e:
					skip_df=True
					df = self._cmd.rs.selected_file
					df_path_list = df.fully_qualified_path(True)
					df_skip_reason_str = '/'.join(df_path_list) + "/" + str(f) + ", " + str(e)
					if context:
						context['DF_SKIP'] += 1
						context['DF_SKIP_REASON'].append(df_skip_reason_str)

				# If the DF was skipped, we never have entered the directory
				# below, so we must not move up.
				if skip_df == False:
					self.walk(indent + 1, action, context)
					fcp_dec = self._cmd.rs.select("..", self._cmd)

			elif action:
				df_before_action = self._cmd.rs.selected_file
				action(f, context)
				# When walking through the file system tree the action must not
				# always restore the currently selected file to the file that
				# was selected before executing the action() callback.
				if df_before_action != self._cmd.rs.selected_file:
					raise RuntimeError("inconsistent walk, %s is currently selected but expecting %s to be selected"
							   % (str(self._cmd.rs.selected_file), str(df_before_action)))

	def do_tree(self, opts):
		"""Display a filesystem-tree with all selectable files"""
		self.walk()

	def export(self, filename, context):
		""" Select and export a single file """
		context['COUNT'] += 1
		df = self._cmd.rs.selected_file

		if not isinstance(df, CardDF):
			raise RuntimeError("currently selected file %s is not a DF or ADF" % str(df))

		df_path_list = df.fully_qualified_path(True)
		df_path_list_fid = df.fully_qualified_path(False)

		self._cmd.poutput("#" * 80)
		file_str = '/'.join(df_path_list) + "/" + str(filename) + " " * 80
		self._cmd.poutput("# " + file_str[0:77] + "#")
		self._cmd.poutput("#" * 80)

		self._cmd.poutput("# directory: %s (%s)" % ('/'.join(df_path_list), '/'.join(df_path_list_fid)))
		try:
			fcp_dec = self._cmd.rs.select(filename, self._cmd)
			self._cmd.poutput("# file: %s (%s)" % (self._cmd.rs.selected_file.name, self._cmd.rs.selected_file.fid))

			fd = fcp_dec['file_descriptor']
			structure = fd['structure']
			self._cmd.poutput("# structure: %s" % str(structure))

			for f in df_path_list:
				self._cmd.poutput("select " + str(f))
			self._cmd.poutput("select " + self._cmd.rs.selected_file.name)

			if structure == 'transparent':
				result = self._cmd.rs.read_binary()
				self._cmd.poutput("update_binary " + str(result[0]))
			if structure == 'cyclic' or structure == 'linear_fixed':
				num_of_rec = fd['num_of_rec']
				for r in range(1, num_of_rec + 1):
					result = self._cmd.rs.read_record(r)
					self._cmd.poutput("update_record %d %s" % (r, str(result[0])))
		except Exception as e:
			bad_file_str = '/'.join(df_path_list) + "/" + str(filename) + ", " + str(e)
			self._cmd.poutput("# bad file: %s" % bad_file_str)
			context['ERR'] += 1
			context['BAD'].append(bad_file_str)

		# When reading the file is done, make sure the parent file is
		# selected again. This will be the usual case, however we need
		# to check before since we must not select the same DF twice
		if df != self._cmd.rs.selected_file:
			self._cmd.rs.select(df.fid or df.aid, self._cmd)

		self._cmd.poutput("#")

	export_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	export_parser.add_argument('--filename', type=str, default=None, help='only export specific file')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(export_parser)
	def do_export(self, opts):
		"""Export files to script that can be imported back later"""
		context = {'ERR':0, 'COUNT':0, 'BAD':[], 'DF_SKIP':0, 'DF_SKIP_REASON':[]}
		if opts.filename:
			self.export(opts.filename, context)
		else:
			self.walk(0, self.export, context)
		self._cmd.poutput("# total files visited: %u" % context['COUNT'])
		self._cmd.poutput("# bad files:           %u" % context['ERR'])
		for b in context['BAD']:
			self._cmd.poutput("#  " + b)

		self._cmd.poutput("# skipped dedicated files(s): %u" % context['DF_SKIP'])
		for b in context['DF_SKIP_REASON']:
			self._cmd.poutput("#  " + b)

		if context['ERR'] and context['DF_SKIP']:
			raise RuntimeError("unable to export %i elementary file(s) and %i dedicated file(s)" % (context['ERR'], context['DF_SKIP']))
		elif context['ERR']:
			raise RuntimeError("unable to export %i elementary file(s)" % context['ERR'])
		elif context['DF_SKIP']:
			raise RuntimeError("unable to export %i dedicated files(s)" % context['ERR'])


@with_default_category('ISO7816 Commands')
class Iso7816Commands(CommandSet):
	def __init__(self):
		super().__init__()

	def do_select(self, opts):
		"""SELECT a File (ADF/DF/EF)"""
		if len(opts.arg_list) == 0:
			path_list = self._cmd.rs.selected_file.fully_qualified_path(True)
			path_list_fid = self._cmd.rs.selected_file.fully_qualified_path(False)
			self._cmd.poutput("currently selected file: " + '/'.join(path_list) + " (" + '/'.join(path_list_fid) + ")")
			return

		path = opts.arg_list[0]
		fcp_dec = self._cmd.rs.select(path, self._cmd)
		self._cmd.update_prompt()
		self._cmd.poutput_json(fcp_dec)

	def complete_select(self, text, line, begidx, endidx) -> List[str]:
		"""Command Line tab completion for SELECT"""
		index_dict = { 1: self._cmd.rs.selected_file.get_selectable_names() }
		return self._cmd.index_based_complete(text, line, begidx, endidx, index_dict=index_dict)

	def get_code(self, code):
		"""Use code either directly or try to get it from external data source"""
		auto = ('PIN1', 'PIN2', 'PUK1', 'PUK2')

		if str(code).upper() not in auto:
			return sanitize_pin_adm(code)

		result = card_key_provider_get_field(str(code), key='ICCID', value=self._cmd.iccid)
		result = sanitize_pin_adm(result)
		if result:
			self._cmd.poutput("found %s '%s' for ICCID '%s'" % (code.upper(), result, self._cmd.iccid))
		else:
			self._cmd.poutput("cannot find %s for ICCID '%s'" % (code.upper(), self._cmd.iccid))
		return result

	verify_chv_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	verify_chv_parser.add_argument('--pin-nr', type=int, default=1, help='PIN Number, 1=PIN1, 2=PIN2 or custom value (decimal)')
	verify_chv_parser.add_argument('pin_code', type=str, help='PIN code digits, \"PIN1\" or \"PIN2\" to get PIN code from external data source')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(verify_chv_parser)
	def do_verify_chv(self, opts):
		"""Verify (authenticate) using specified PIN code"""
		pin = self.get_code(opts.pin_code)
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.verify_chv(opts.pin_nr, h2b(pin))
		self._cmd.poutput("CHV verification successful")

	unblock_chv_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	unblock_chv_parser.add_argument('--pin-nr', type=int, default=1, help='PUK Number, 1=PIN1, 2=PIN2 or custom value (decimal)')
	unblock_chv_parser.add_argument('puk_code', type=str, help='PUK code digits \"PUK1\" or \"PUK2\" to get PUK code from external data source')
	unblock_chv_parser.add_argument('new_pin_code', type=str, help='PIN code digits \"PIN1\" or \"PIN2\" to get PIN code from external data source')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(unblock_chv_parser)
	def do_unblock_chv(self, opts):
		"""Unblock PIN code using specified PUK code"""
		new_pin = self.get_code(opts.new_pin_code)
		puk = self.get_code(opts.puk_code)
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.unblock_chv(opts.pin_nr, h2b(puk), h2b(new_pin))
		self._cmd.poutput("CHV unblock successful")

	change_chv_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	change_chv_parser.add_argument('--pin-nr', type=int, default=1, help='PUK Number, 1=PIN1, 2=PIN2 or custom value (decimal)')
	change_chv_parser.add_argument('pin_code', type=str, help='PIN code digits \"PIN1\" or \"PIN2\" to get PIN code from external data source')
	change_chv_parser.add_argument('new_pin_code', type=str, help='PIN code digits \"PIN1\" or \"PIN2\" to get PIN code from external data source')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(change_chv_parser)
	def do_change_chv(self, opts):
		"""Change PIN code to a new PIN code"""
		new_pin = self.get_code(opts.new_pin_code)
		pin = self.get_code(opts.pin_code)
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.change_chv(opts.pin_nr, h2b(pin), h2b(new_pin))
		self._cmd.poutput("CHV change successful")

	disable_chv_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	disable_chv_parser.add_argument('--pin-nr', type=int, default=1, help='PIN Number, 1=PIN1, 2=PIN2 or custom value (decimal)')
	disable_chv_parser.add_argument('pin_code', type=str, help='PIN code digits, \"PIN1\" or \"PIN2\" to get PIN code from external data source')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(disable_chv_parser)
	def do_disable_chv(self, opts):
		"""Disable PIN code using specified PIN code"""
		pin = self.get_code(opts.pin_code)
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.disable_chv(opts.pin_nr, h2b(pin))
		self._cmd.poutput("CHV disable successful")

	enable_chv_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	enable_chv_parser.add_argument('--pin-nr', type=int, default=1, help='PIN Number, 1=PIN1, 2=PIN2 or custom value (decimal)')
	enable_chv_parser.add_argument('pin_code', type=str, help='PIN code digits, \"PIN1\" or \"PIN2\" to get PIN code from external data source')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(enable_chv_parser)
	def do_enable_chv(self, opts):
		"""Enable PIN code using specified PIN code"""
		pin = self.get_code(opts.pin_code)
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.enable_chv(opts.pin_nr, h2b(pin))
		self._cmd.poutput("CHV enable successful")

	def do_deactivate_file(self, opts):
		"""Deactivate the current EF"""
		fid = self._cmd.rs.selected_file.fid
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.deactivate_file(fid)

	def do_activate_file(self, opts):
		"""Activate the current EF"""
		fid = self._cmd.rs.selected_file.fid
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.activate_file(fid)

	open_chan_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	open_chan_parser.add_argument('chan_nr', type=int, default=0, help='Channel Number')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(open_chan_parser)
	def do_open_channel(self, opts):
		"""Open a logical channel."""
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.manage_channel(mode='open', lchan_nr=opts.chan_nr)

	close_chan_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
	close_chan_parser.add_argument('chan_nr', type=int, default=0, help='Channel Number')

	@cmd2.with_argparser(close_chan_parser)
	def do_close_channel(self, opts):
		"""Close a logical channel."""
		(data, sw) = self._cmd.card._scc.manage_channel(mode='close', lchan_nr=opts.chan_nr)


option_parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(prog='pySim-shell', description='interactive SIM card shell',
                                        formatter_class=argparse.ArgumentDefaultsHelpFormatter)
argparse_add_reader_args(option_parser)

global_group = option_parser.add_argument_group('General Options')
global_group.add_argument('--script', metavar='PATH', default=None,
                          help='script with pySim-shell commands to be executed automatically at start-up')
global_group.add_argument('--csv', metavar='FILE', default=None, help='Read card data from CSV file')

adm_group = global_group.add_mutually_exclusive_group()
adm_group.add_argument('-a', '--pin-adm', metavar='PIN_ADM1', dest='pin_adm', default=None,
                       help='ADM PIN used for provisioning (overwrites default)')
adm_group.add_argument('-A', '--pin-adm-hex', metavar='PIN_ADM1_HEX', dest='pin_adm_hex', default=None,
                       help='ADM PIN used for provisioning, as hex string (16 characters long)')


if __name__ == '__main__':

	# Parse options
	opts = option_parser.parse_args()

	# Init card reader driver
	sl = init_reader(opts)
	if (sl == None):
		exit(1)

	# Create command layer
	scc = SimCardCommands(transport=sl)

	sl.wait_for_card();

	card_handler = card_handler(sl)

	card = card_detect("auto", scc)
	if card is None:
		print("No card detected!")
		sys.exit(2)

	profile = CardProfileUICC()
	profile.add_application(CardApplicationUSIM)
	profile.add_application(CardApplicationISIM)

	rs = RuntimeState(card, profile)
	# inform the transport that we can do context-specific SW interpretation
	sl.set_sw_interpreter(rs)

	# FIXME: do this dynamically
	rs.mf.add_file(DF_TELECOM())
	rs.mf.add_file(DF_GSM())

	# If a script file is specified, be sure that it actually exists
	if opts.script:
		if not os.access(opts.script, os.R_OK):
			print("Invalid script file!")
			sys.exit(2)

	app = PysimApp(card, rs, opts.script)
	rs.select('MF', app)

	# Register csv-file as card data provider, either from specified CSV
	# or from CSV file in home directory
	csv_default = str(Path.home()) + "/.osmocom/pysim/card_data.csv"
	if opts.csv:
		card_key_provider_register(CardKeyProviderCsv(opts.csv))
	if os.path.isfile(csv_default):
		card_key_provider_register(CardKeyProviderCsv(csv_default))

	# If the user supplies an ADM PIN at via commandline args authenticate
	# immediately so that the user does not have to use the shell commands
	pin_adm = sanitize_pin_adm(opts.pin_adm, opts.pin_adm_hex)
	if pin_adm:
		try:
			card.verify_adm(h2b(pin_adm))
		except Exception as e:
			print(e)

	app.cmdloop()