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   The Wireshark FAQ

   Note: This is just an ASCII snapshot of the faq and may not be up to
         date. Please go to http://www.ethereal.com/faq.html for the up
         to date version. The version of this snapshot can be found at
         the end of this document.

   INDEX


1. General Questions:

   1.1 Where can I get help?

   1.2 How much does Ethereal cost?

   1.3 Can I use Ethereal commercially?

   1.4 Can I use Ethereal as part of my commercial product?

   1.5 What protocols are currently supported?

   1.6 Are there any plans to support {your favorite protocol}?

   1.7 Can Ethereal read capture files from {your favorite network analyzer}?

   1.8 What devices can Ethereal use to capture packets?

   1.9 How do you pronounce Ethereal? Where did the name come from?

   1.10 Does Ethereal work on Windows Me? 

   1.11 Does Ethereal work on Windows XP? 

2. Downloading Ethereal:

   2.1 Why do I get an error when I try to run the Win32 installer?

   2.2 Why can't I get to the WinPcap Web site in order to download WinPcap?

3. Installing Ethereal:

   3.1 I installed an Ethereal RPM; why did it install TShark but not
   Ethereal?

4. Building Ethereal:

   4.1 I have libpcap installed; why did the configure script not find pcap.h
   or bpf.h?

   4.2 Why do I get the error 

     dftest_DEPENDENCIES was already defined in condition TRUE, which implies
     condition HAVE_PLUGINS_TRUE

   when I try to build Ethereal from SVN or a SVN snapshot?

   4.3 Why does the linker fail with a number of "Output line too long."
   messages followed by linker errors when I try to buil Ethereal? 

   4.4 When I try to build Ethereal on Solaris, why does the link fail
   complaining that plugin_list is undefined? 

   4.5 When I try to build Ethereal on Windows, why does the build fail because
   of conflicts between winsock.h and winsock2.h? 

5. Starting Ethereal:

   5.1 Why does Ethereal crash with a Bus Error when I try to run it on Solaris
   8?

   5.2 When I run TShark with the "-x" option, why does it crash with an
   error 

     "** ERROR **: file print.c: line 691 (print_line): should not be reached.

   5.3 When I run Ethereal on Windows NT, why does it die with a Dr. Watson
   error, reporting an "Integer division by zero" exception, when I start it?

   5.4 When I try to run Ethereal, why does it complain about
   sprint_realloc_objid being undefined?

   5.5 When I try to run Ethereal on Windows, why does it fail to run with a
   complaint that it can't find packet.dll?

   5.6 Why do I get the error 

     Gdk-ERROR **: Palettized display (256-colour) mode not supported on
     Windows.
     aborting....

   when I try to run Ethereal on Windows?

   5.7 I've installed Ethereal from Fink on Mac OS X; why is it very slow to
   start up? 

6. Crashes and other fatal errors:

   6.1 When I run Ethereal, why do I get an error 

     Gtk-CRITICAL **: file gtkwindow.c: line 3107 (gtk_window_resize):
     assertion `height > 0' failed.

   6.2 I have an XXX network card on my machine; if I try to capture on it, why
   does my machine crash or reset itself? 

   6.3 Why does my machine crash or reset itself when I select "Start" from the
   "Capture" menu or select "Preferences" from the "Edit" menu? 

7. Capturing packets:

   7.1 When I use Ethereal to capture packets, why do I see only packets to and
   from my machine, or not see all the traffic I'm expecting to see from or to
   the machine I'm trying to monitor?

   7.2 When I capture with Ethereal, why can't I see any TCP packets other than
   packets to and from my machine, even though another analyzer on the network
   sees those packets?

   7.3 Why am I only seeing ARP packets when I try to capture traffic?

   7.4 Why am I not seeing any traffic when I try to capture traffic?

   7.5 Can Ethereal capture on (my T1/E1 line, SS7 links, etc.)? 

   7.6 How do I put an interface into promiscuous mode?

   7.7 I can set a display filter just fine; why don't capture filters work? 

   7.8 I'm entering valid capture filters; why do I still get "parse error"
   errors?

   7.9 How can I capture packets with CRC errors? 

   7.10 How can I capture entire frames, including the FCS? 

   7.11 I'm capturing packets on a machine on a VLAN; why don't the packets I'm
   capturing have VLAN tags? 

   7.12 Why does Ethereal hang after I stop a capture? 

8. Capturing packets on Windows:

   8.1 I'm running Ethereal on Windows; why does some network interface on my
   machine not show up in the list of interfaces in the "Interface:" field in
   the dialog box popped up by "Capture->Start", and/or why does Ethereal give
   me an error if I try to capture on that interface? 

   8.2 I'm running Ethereal on Windows; why do no network interfaces show up in
   the list of interfaces in the "Interface:" field in the dialog box popped up
   by "Capture->Start"? 

   8.3 I'm running Ethereal on Windows; why doesn't my serial port/ADSL
   modem/ISDN modem show up in the list of interfaces in the "Interface:" field
   in the dialog box popped up by "Capture->Start"? 

   8.4 I'm running Ethereal on Windows NT 4.0/Windows 2000/Windows XP/Windows
   Server 2003; my machine has a PPP (dial-up POTS, ISDN, etc.) interface, and
   it shows up in the "Interface" item in the "Capture Options" dialog box. Why
   can no packets be sent on or received from that network while I'm trying to
   capture traffic on that interface?

   8.5 I'm running Ethereal on Windows 95/98/Me, on a machine with more than
   one network adapter of the same type; why does Ethereal show all of those
   adapters with the same name, not letting me use any of those adapters other
   than the first one?

   8.6 I'm running Ethereal on Windows; why am I not seeing any traffic being
   sent by the machine running Ethereal?

   8.7 When I capture on Windows in promiscuous mode, I can see packets other
   than those sent to or from my machine; however, those packets show up with a
   "Short Frame" indication, unlike packets to or from my machine. What should
   I do to arrange that I see those packets in their entirety? 

   8.8 I'm capturing packets on {Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me}; why are
   the time stamps on packets wrong? 

   8.9 I'm trying to capture 802.11 traffic on Windows; why am I not seeing any
   packets? 

   8.10 I'm trying to capture 802.11 traffic on Windows; why am I seeing
   packets received by the machine on which I'm capturing traffic, but not
   packets sent by that machine? 

   8.11 I'm trying to capture Ethernet VLAN traffic on Windows, and I'm
   capturing on a "raw" Ethernet device rather than a "VLAN interface", so that
   I can see the VLAN headers; why am I seeing packets received by the machine
   on which I'm capturing traffic, but not packets sent by that machine? 

9. Capturing packets on UN*Xes:

   9.1 I'm running Ethereal on a UNIX-flavored OS; why does some network
   interface on my machine not show up in the list of interfaces in the
   "Interface:" field in the dialog box popped up by "Capture->Start", and/or
   why does Ethereal give me an error if I try to capture on that interface? 

   9.2 I'm running Ethereal on a UNIX-flavored OS; why do no network interfaces
   show up in the list of interfaces in the "Interface:" field in the dialog
   box popped up by "Capture->Start"? 

   9.3 I'm capturing packets on Linux; why do the time stamps have only 100ms
   resolution, rather than 1us resolution?

10. Capturing packets on wireless LANs:

   10.1 How can I capture raw 802.11 frames, including non-data (management,
   beacon) frames? 

   10.2 How do I capture on an 802.11 device in monitor mode?

11. Viewing traffic:

   11.1 Why am I seeing lots of packets with incorrect TCP checksums?

   11.2 I've just installed Ethereal, and the traffic on my local LAN is
   boring. Where can I find more interesting captures? 

   11.3 Why doesn't Ethereal correctly identify RTP packets? It shows them only
   as UDP.

   11.4 Why doesn't Ethereal show Yahoo Messenger packets in captures that
   contain Yahoo Messenger traffic?

12. Filtering traffic:

   12.1 I saved a filter and tried to use its name to filter the display; why
   do I get an "Unexpected end of filter string" error?

   12.2 How can I search for, or filter, packets that have a particular string
   anywhere in them? 

   12.3 How do I filter a capture to see traffic for virus XXX? 

1. General Questions

   Q 1.1: Where can I get help?

   A: Community support is available on the ethereal-users mailing list.
   Subscription information and archives for all of Ethereal's mailing lists
   can be found at http://www.ethereal.com/lists. An IRC channel dedicated to
   Ethereal can be found at irc://irc.freenode.net/ethereal.

   Commercial support, training, and development services are available from
   Ethereal Software.

   Q 1.2: How much does Ethereal cost?

   A: Wireshark is "free software"; you can download it without paying any
   license fee. The version of Ethereal you download isn't a "demo" version,
   with limitations not present in a "full" version; it is the full version.

   The license under which Wireshark is issued is the GNU General Public
   License. See the GNU GPL FAQ for some more information.

   Q 1.3: Can I use Ethereal commercially?

   A: Yes, if, for example, you mean "I work for a commercial organization; can
   I use Ethereal to capture and analyze network traffic in our company's
   networks or in our customer's networks?"

   If you mean "Can I use Ethereal as part of my commercial product?", see the
   next entry in the FAQ.

   Q 1.4: Can I use Ethereal as part of my commercial product?

   A: As noted, Wireshark is licensed under the GNU General Public License. The
   GPL imposes conditions on your use of GPL'ed code in your own products; you
   cannot, for example, make a "derived work" from Ethereal, by making
   modifications to it, and then sell the resulting derived work and not allow
   recipients to give away the resulting work. You must also make the changes
   you've made to the Wireshark source available to all recipients of your
   modified version; those changes must also be licensed under the terms of the
   GPL. See the GPL FAQ for more details; in particular, note the answer to the
   question about modifying a GPLed program and selling it commercially, and
   the question about linking GPLed code with other code to make a proprietary
   program.

   You can combine a GPLed program such as Ethereal and a commercial program as
   long as they communicate "at arm's length", as per this item in the GPL FAQ.

   Q 1.5: What protocols are currently supported?

   A: There are currently 750 supported protocols and media, listed below.
   Descriptions can be found in the ethereal(1) man page.

            3Com XNS Encapsulation
            3GPP2 A11
            3com Network Jack
            802.1Q Virtual LAN
            802.1X Authentication
            AAL type 2 signalling protocol (Q.2630)
            ACN
            AFS (4.0) Replication Server call declarations
            AIM Administrative
            AIM Advertisements
            AIM Buddylist Service
            AIM Chat Navigation
            AIM Chat Service
            AIM Directory Search
            AIM E-mail
            AIM Generic Service
            AIM ICQ
            AIM Invitation Service
            AIM Location
            AIM Messaging
            AIM OFT
            AIM Popup
            AIM Privacy Management Service
            AIM Server Side Info
            AIM Server Side Themes
            AIM Signon
            AIM Statistics
            AIM Translate
            AIM User Lookup
            ANSI A-I/F BSMAP
            ANSI A-I/F DTAP
            ANSI IS-637-A (SMS) Teleservice Layer
            ANSI IS-637-A (SMS) Transport Layer
            ANSI IS-683-A (OTA (Mobile))
            ANSI IS-801 (Location Services (PLD))
            ANSI Mobile Application Part
            AOL Instant Messenger
            ARCNET
            ASN.1 decoding
            ATAoverEthernet
            ATM
            ATM AAL1
            ATM AAL3/4
            ATM LAN Emulation
            ATM OAM AAL
            AVS WLAN Capture header
            AX/4000 Test Block
            Active Directory Setup
            Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol
            Adaptive Multi-Rate
            Address Resolution Protocol
            AgentX
            Aggregate Server Access Protocol
            Alert Standard Forum
            Alteon - Transparent Proxy Cache Protocol
            Andrew File System (AFS)
            Apache JServ Protocol v1.3
            Apple Filing Protocol
            Apple IP-over-IEEE 1394
            AppleTalk Session Protocol
            AppleTalk Transaction Protocol packet
            Appletalk Address Resolution Protocol
            Application Configuration Access Protocol
            Art-Net
            Aruba - Aruba Discovery Protocol
            Async data over ISDN (V.120)
            Asynchronous Layered Coding
            AudioCodes Trunk Trace
            Authentication Header
            BACnet Virtual Link Control
            BEA Tuxedo
            BSSAP/BSAP
            Banyan Vines ARP
            Banyan Vines Echo
            Banyan Vines Fragmentation Protocol
            Banyan Vines ICP
            Banyan Vines IP
            Banyan Vines IPC
            Banyan Vines LLC
            Banyan Vines RTP
            Banyan Vines SPP
            Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol
            Basic Encoding Rules (ASN.1 X.690)
            Bearer Independent Call Control
            Bi-directional Fault Detection Control Message
            BitTorrent
            Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol
            Blubster/Piolet MANOLITO Protocol
            Boardwalk
            Boot Parameters
            Bootstrap Protocol
            Border Gateway Protocol
            Building Automation and Control Network APDU
            Building Automation and Control Network NPDU
            CBAPhysicalDevice
            CCSDS
            CDS Clerk Server Calls
            CSM_ENCAPS
            Camel
            Cast Client Control Protocol
            Certificate Management Protocol
            Certificate Request Message Format
            Check Point High Availability Protocol
            Checkpoint FW-1
            Cisco Auto-RP
            Cisco Discovery Protocol
            Cisco Group Management Protocol
            Cisco HDLC
            Cisco Hot Standby Router Protocol
            Cisco ISL
            Cisco Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
            Cisco NetFlow
            Cisco SLARP
            Cisco Session Management
            Cisco Wireless Layer 2
            Clearcase NFS
            CoSine IPNOS L2 debug output
            Common Image Generator Interface
            Common Industrial Protocol
            Common Open Policy Service
            Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) Browsing Protocol
            Compressed Data Type
            Compuserve GIF
            Computer Interface to Message Distribution
            Configuration Test Protocol (loopback)
            Connectionless Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
            Coseventcomm Dissector Using GIOP API
            Cosnaming Dissector Using GIOP API
            Cross Point Frame Injector
            Cryptographic Message Syntax
            DCE Distributed Time Service Local Server
            DCE Distributed Time Service Provider
            DCE Name Service
            DCE RPC
            DCE Security ID Mapper
            DCE/DFS BUDB
            DCE/RPC BOS Server
            DCE/RPC BUTC
            DCE/RPC CDS Solicitation
            DCE/RPC Conversation Manager
            DCE/RPC Directory Acl Interface
            DCE/RPC Endpoint Mapper
            DCE/RPC Endpoint Mapper v4
            DCE/RPC FLDB
            DCE/RPC FLDB UBIK TRANSFER
            DCE/RPC FLDB UBIKVOTE
            DCE/RPC ICL RPC
            DCE/RPC Kerberos V
            DCE/RPC NCS 1.5.1 Local Location Broker
            DCE/RPC Operations between registry server replicas
            DCE/RPC Prop Attr
            DCE/RPC RS_ACCT
            DCE/RPC RS_BIND
            DCE/RPC RS_MISC
            DCE/RPC RS_PROP_ACCT
            DCE/RPC RS_UNIX
            DCE/RPC Registry Password Management
            DCE/RPC Registry Server Attributes Schema
            DCE/RPC Registry server propagation interface - ACLs.
            DCE/RPC Registry server propagation interface - PGO items
            DCE/RPC Registry server propagation interface - properties and poli
cies
            DCE/RPC Remote Management
            DCE/RPC Repserver Calls
            DCE/RPC TokenServer Calls
            DCE/RPC UpServer
            DCOM
            DCOM IDispatch
            DCOM IRemoteActivation
            DCOM OXID Resolver
            DEC DNA Routing Protocol
            DEC Spanning Tree Protocol
            DFS Calls
            DG Gryphon Protocol
            DHCP Failover
            DHCPv6
            DICOM
            DLT_USER_A
            DLT_USER_B
            DLT_USER_C
            DLT_USER_D
            DNS Control Program Server
            DOCSIS 1.1
            DOCSIS Appendix C TLV's
            DOCSIS Baseline Privacy Key Management Attributes
            DOCSIS Baseline Privacy Key Management Request
            DOCSIS Baseline Privacy Key Management Response
            DOCSIS Dynamic Service Addition Acknowledge
            DOCSIS Dynamic Service Addition Request
            DOCSIS Dynamic Service Addition Response
            DOCSIS Dynamic Service Change Acknowledgement
            DOCSIS Dynamic Service Change Request
            DOCSIS Dynamic Service Change Response
            DOCSIS Dynamic Service Delete Request
            DOCSIS Dynamic Service Delete Response
            DOCSIS Initial Ranging Message
            DOCSIS Mac Management
            DOCSIS Range Request Message
            DOCSIS Ranging Response
            DOCSIS Registration Acknowledge
            DOCSIS Registration Requests
            DOCSIS Registration Responses
            DOCSIS Upstream Bandwidth Allocation
            DOCSIS Upstream Channel Change Request
            DOCSIS Upstream Channel Change Response
            DOCSIS Upstream Channel Descriptor
            DOCSIS Upstream Channel Descriptor Type 29
            DOCSIS Vendor Specific Endodings
            DPNSS/DASS2-User Adaptation Layer
            DRSUAPI
            Data
            Data Link SWitching
            Data Stream Interface
            Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
            Datagram Delivery Protocol
            Decompressed SigComp message as raw text
            Diameter Protocol
            Digital Audio Access Protocol
            Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
            Distcc Distributed Compiler
            Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse Protocol
            Distributed Interactive Simulation
            Distributed Network Protocol 3.0
            Domain Name Service
            Dublin Core Metadata (DC)
            Dynamic DNS Tools Protocol
            Dynamic Trunking Protocol
            ENTTEC
            Echo
            Encapsulating Security Payload
            Endpoint Name Resolution Protocol
            Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
            EtherNet/IP (Industrial Protocol)
            Etheric
            Ethernet
            Ethernet over IP
            Extended Security Services
            Extensible Authentication Protocol
            Extreme Discovery Protocol
            FC Extended Link Svc
            FC Fabric Configuration Server
            FCIP
            FTP Data
            FTServer Operations
            Fiber Distributed Data Interface
            Fibre Channel
            Fibre Channel Common Transport
            Fibre Channel Fabric Zone Server
            Fibre Channel Name Server
            Fibre Channel Protocol for SCSI
            Fibre Channel SW_ILS
            Fibre Channel Security Protocol
            Fibre Channel Single Byte Command
            File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
            Financial Information eXchange Protocol
            Frame
            Frame Relay
            G.723
            GARP Multicast Registration Protocol
            GARP VLAN Registration Protocol
            GPRS Network service
            GPRS Tunneling Protocol
            GSM A-I/F BSSMAP
            GSM A-I/F DTAP
            GSM A-I/F RP
            GSM Mobile Application
            GSM SMS TPDU (GSM 03.40)
            GSM Short Message Service User Data
            GSM_SS
            GSS-API Generic Security Service Application Program Interface
            General Inter-ORB Protocol
            Generic Routing Encapsulation
            Gnutella Protocol
            H.248 MEGACO
            H.324/CCSRL
            H.324/SRP
            H221NonStandard
            H235-SECURITY-MESSAGES
            H323-MESSAGES
            HP Extended Local-Link Control
            HP Remote Maintenance Protocol
            HP Switch Protocol
            HP-UX Network Tracing and Logging
            Hummingbird NFS Daemon
            HyperSCSI
            Hypertext Transfer Protocol
            ICBAAccoCallback
            ICBAAccoCallback2
            ICBAAccoMgt
            ICBAAccoMgt2
            ICBAAccoServer
            ICBAAccoServer2
            ICBAAccoServerSRT
            ICBAAccoSync
            ICBABrowse
            ICBABrowse2
            ICBAGroupError
            ICBAGroupErrorEvent
            ICBALogicalDevice
            ICBALogicalDevice2
            ICBAPersist
            ICBAPersist2
            ICBAPhysicalDevice
            ICBAPhysicalDevice2
            ICBAPhysicalDevicePC
            ICBAPhysicalDevicePCEvent
            ICBARTAuto
            ICBARTAuto2
            ICBAState
            ICBAStateEvent
            ICBASystemProperties
            ICBATime
            ICQ Protocol
            IEEE 802.11 Radiotap Capture header
            IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN
            IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN management frame
            IEEE802a OUI Extended Ethertype
            ILMI
            IP Device Control (SS7 over IP)
            IP Over FC
            IP Payload Compression
            IP Virtual Services Sync Daemon
            IPX Message
            IPX Routing Information Protocol
            IPX WAN
            IRemUnknown
            IRemUnknown2
            ISDN
            ISDN Q.921-User Adaptation Layer
            ISDN User Part
            ISO 10589 ISIS InTRA Domain Routeing Information Exchange Protocol
            ISO 8073 COTP Connection-Oriented Transport Protocol
            ISO 8327-1 OSI Session Protocol
            ISO 8473 CLNP ConnectionLess Network Protocol
            ISO 8571 FTAM
            ISO 8602 CLTP ConnectionLess Transport Protocol
            ISO 8650-1 OSI Association Control Service
            ISO 8823 OSI Presentation Protocol
            ISO 9542 ESIS Routeing Information Exchange Protocol
            ISUP Thin Protocol
            ISystemActivator ISystemActivator Resolver
            ITU M.3100 Generic Network Information Model
            ITU-T E.164 number
            ITU-T Recommendation H.223
            ITU-T Recommendation H.261
            ITU-T Recommendation H.263
            ITU-T Recommendation H.263 RTP Payload header (RFC2190)
            InMon sFlow
            Information Access Protocol
            Init shutdown service
            Intel ANS probe
            Intelligent Network Application Protocol
            Intelligent Platform Management Interface
            Inter-Access-Point Protocol
            Inter-Asterisk eXchange v2
            InterSwitch Message Protocol
            Interbase
            Internet Cache Protocol
            Internet Communications Engine Protocol
            Internet Content Adaptation Protocol
            Internet Control Message Protocol
            Internet Control Message Protocol v6
            Internet Group Management Protocol
            Internet Group membership Authentication Protocol
            Internet Message Access Protocol
            Internet Printing Protocol
            Internet Protocol
            Internet Protocol Version 6
            Internet Relay Chat
            Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
            Internetwork Datagram Protocol
            Internetwork Packet eXchange
            IrCOMM Protocol
            IrDA Link Access Protocol
            IrDA Link Management Protocol
            IuUP
            JPEG File Interchange Format
            JXTA Connection Welcome Message
            JXTA Message
            JXTA Message Framing
            JXTA P2P
            JXTA UDP
            Jabber XML Messaging
            Java RMI
            Java Serialization
            Juniper
            K12xx
            Kerberized Internet Negotiation of Key
            Kerberos
            Kerberos Administration
            Kerberos v4
            Kernel Lock Manager
            LWAP Control Message
            LWAPP Encapsulated Packet
            LWAPP Layer 3 Packet
            Label Distribution Protocol
            Laplink
            Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
            Light Weight DNS RESolver (BIND9)
            Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
            Lightweight User Datagram Protocol
            Line Printer Daemon Protocol
            Line-based text data
            Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB)
            Link Access Procedure Balanced Ethernet (LAPBETHER)
            Link Access Procedure, Channel D (LAPD)
            Link Layer Discovery Protocol
            Link Management Protocol (LMP)
            Linux cooked-mode capture
            Local Management Interface
            LocalTalk Link Access Protocol
            Log Message
            Logical Link Control GPRS
            Logical-Link Control
            Logical-Link Control Basic Format XID
            Logotype Certificate Extensions
            Lucent/Ascend debug output
            MAC Control
            MAP_DialoguePDU
            MDS Header
            MEGACO
            MIME Multipart Media Encapsulation
            MMS
            MMS Message Encapsulation
            MS Kpasswd
            MS Network Load Balancing
            MS Proxy Protocol
            MSN Messenger Service
            MSNIP: Multicast Source Notification of Interest Protocol
            MTP 2 Transparent Proxy
            MTP 2 User Adaptation Layer
            MTP 3 User Adaptation Layer
            MTP2 Peer Adaptation Layer
            MULTIMEDIA-SYSTEM-CONTROL
            Media Gateway Control Protocol
            Media Type
            Media Type: message/http
            Message Session Relay Protocol
            Message Transfer Part Level 2
            Message Transfer Part Level 3
            Message Transfer Part Level 3 Management
            Meta Analysis Tracing Engine
            Microsoft AT-Scheduler Service
            Microsoft Distributed File System
            Microsoft Distributed Link Tracking Server Service
            Microsoft Encrypted File System Service
            Microsoft Eventlog Service
            Microsoft Exchange MAPI
            Microsoft File Replication Service
            Microsoft File Replication Service API
            Microsoft Local Security Architecture
            Microsoft Media Server
            Microsoft Messenger Service
            Microsoft Network Logon
            Microsoft Plug and Play service
            Microsoft Routing and Remote Access Service
            Microsoft Security Account Manager
            Microsoft Server Service
            Microsoft Service Control
            Microsoft Spool Subsystem
            Microsoft Telephony API Service
            Microsoft Windows Browser Protocol
            Microsoft Windows Lanman Remote API Protocol
            Microsoft Windows Logon Protocol (Old)
            Microsoft Workstation Service
            Mobile IP
            Mobile IPv6 / Network Mobility
            Modbus/TCP
            Monotone Netsync
            Mount Service
            MultiProtocol Label Switching Header
            Multicast Router DISCovery protocol
            Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
            Multiprotocol Label Switching Echo
            MySQL Protocol
            NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol
            NFSACL
            NFSAUTH
            NIS+
            NIS+ Callback
            NSPI
            NTLM Secure Service Provider
            Name Binding Protocol
            Name Management Protocol over IPX
            Negative-acknowledgment Oriented Reliable Multicast
            NetBIOS
            NetBIOS Datagram Service
            NetBIOS Name Service
            NetBIOS Session Service
            NetBIOS over IPX
            NetScape Certificate Extensions
            NetWare Core Protocol
            NetWare Link Services Protocol
            NetWare Serialization Protocol
            Network Data Management Protocol
            Network File System
            Network Lock Manager Protocol
            Network News Transfer Protocol
            Network Service Over IP
            Network Status Monitor CallBack Protocol
            Network Status Monitor Protocol
            Network Time Protocol
            Nortel SONMP
            Novell Cluster Services
            Novell Distributed Print System
            Novell Modular Authentication Service
            Novell SecretStore Services
            Null/Loopback
            Online Certificate Status Protocol
            Open Policy Service Interface
            Open Shortest Path First
            OpenBSD Encapsulating device
            OpenBSD Packet Filter log file
            OpenBSD Packet Filter log file, pre 3.4
            Optimized Link State Routing Protocol
            PC NFS
            PKCS#1
            PKINIT
            PKIX CERT File Format
            PKIX Qualified
            PKIX Time Stamp Protocol
            PKIX1Explitit
            PKIX1Implitit
            PKIXProxy (RFC3820)
            PPP Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol
            PPP Bandwidth Allocation Protocol
            PPP CDP Control Protocol
            PPP Callback Control Protocol
            PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
            PPP Compressed Datagram
            PPP Compression Control Protocol
            PPP IP Control Protocol
            PPP IPv6 Control Protocol
            PPP In HDLC-Like Framing
            PPP Link Control Protocol
            PPP MPLS Control Protocol
            PPP Multilink Protocol
            PPP Multiplexing
            PPP OSI Control Protocol
            PPP Password Authentication Protocol
            PPP VJ Compression
            PPP-over-Ethernet Discovery
            PPP-over-Ethernet Session
            PPPMux Control Protocol
            PROFINET DCP
            PROFINET IO
            PROFINET Real-Time Protocol
            P_Mul (ACP142)
            Packed Encoding Rules (ASN.1 X.691)
            Packet Cable Lawful Intercept
            PacketCable
            Parallel Virtual File System
            Parlay Dissector Using GIOP API
            Plan 9 9P
            Point-to-Point Protocol
            Point-to-Point Tunnelling Protocol
            Port Aggregation Protocol
            Portmap
            Post Office Protocol
            PostgreSQL
            Pragmatic General Multicast
            Precision Time Protocol (IEEE1588)
            Printer Access Protocol
            Prism
            Privilege Server operations
            Protocol Independent Multicast
            Q.2931
            Q.931
            Q.933
            Quake II Network Protocol
            Quake III Arena Network Protocol
            Quake Network Protocol
            QuakeWorld Network Protocol
            Qualified Logical Link Control
            RDM
            RFC 2250 MPEG1
            RFC 2833 RTP Event
            RIPng
            RPC Browser
            RS Interface properties
            RSTAT
            RSYNC File Synchroniser
            RTcfg
            RX Protocol
            Radio Access Network Application Part
            Radius Protocol
            Raw packet data
            Real Data Transport
            Real Time Streaming Protocol
            Real-Time Media Access Control
            Real-Time Publish-Subscribe Wire Protocol
            Real-Time Transport Protocol
            Real-time Transport Control Protocol
            Redback
            Redundant Link Management Protocol
            Registry Server Attributes Manipulation Interface
            Registry server administration operations.
            Reliable UDP
            Remote Management Control Protocol
            Remote Override interface
            Remote Procedure Call
            Remote Program Load
            Remote Quota
            Remote Registry Service
            Remote Shell
            Remote Wall protocol
            Remote sec_login preauth interface.
            Resource ReserVation Protocol (RSVP)
            Retix Spanning Tree Protocol
            Rlogin Protocol
            Routing Information Protocol
            Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
            SADMIND
            SCSI
            SEBEK - Kernel Data Capture
            SGI Mount Service
            SMB (Server Message Block Protocol)
            SMB MailSlot Protocol
            SMB Pipe Protocol
            SMB2 (Server Message Block Protocol version 2)
            SNA-over-Ethernet
            SNMP Multiplex Protocol
            SPNEGO-KRB5
            SPRAY
            SS7 SCCP-User Adaptation Layer
            SSCF-NNI
            SSCOP
            SSH Protocol
            STANAG 4406 Military Message
            STANAG 5066 (SIS layer)
            Secure Socket Layer
            Sequenced Packet Protocol
            Sequenced Packet eXchange
            Serial Infrared
            Service Advertisement Protocol
            Service Location Protocol
            Session Announcement Protocol
            Session Description Protocol
            Session Initiation Protocol
            Session Initiation Protocol (SIP as raw text)
            Short Message Peer to Peer
            Short Message Relaying Service
            Signaling Compression
            Signalling Connection Control Part
            Signalling Connection Control Part Management
            Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
            Simple Network Management Protocol
            Simple Protected Negotiation
            Simple Traversal of UDP Through NAT
            Sinec H1 Protocol
            Sipfrag
            Skinny Client Control Protocol
            SliMP3 Communication Protocol
            Slow Protocols
            Socks Protocol
            SoulSeek Protocol
            Spanning Tree Protocol
            Stream Control Transmission Protocol
            Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol
            Symantec Enterprise Firewall
            Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
            Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC)
            Synergy
            Syslog message
            Systems Network Architecture
            Systems Network Architecture XID
            T.38
            TACACS
            TACACS+
            TDMA RTmac Discipline
            TEI Management Procedure, Channel D (LAPD)
            TPKT - ISO on TCP - RFC1006
            Tabular Data Stream
            Tango Dissector Using GIOP API
            Tazmen Sniffer Protocol
            Telnet
            Teredo IPv6 over UDP tunneling
            The Armagetron Advanced OpenGL Tron clone
            Time Protocol
            Time Synchronization Protocol
            Tiny Transport Protocol
            Token-Ring
            Token-Ring Media Access Control
            Transaction Capabilities Application Part
            Transmission Control Protocol
            Transparent Inter Process Communication(TIPC)
            Transparent Network Substrate Protocol
            Transport Adapter Layer Interface v1.0, RFC 3094
            Trivial File Transfer Protocol
            UDP Encapsulation of IPsec Packets
            UTRAN Iub interface NBAP signalling
            UTRAN Iur interface Radio Network Subsystem Application Part
            Universal Computer Protocol
            Unlicensed Mobile Access
            User Datagram Protocol
            V5.2-User Adaptation Layer
            Virtual Network Computing
            Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
            Virtual Trunking Protocol
            WAP Binary XML
            WAP Session Initiation Request
            WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) Replication
            Web Cache Coordination Protocol
            WebSphere MQ
            WebSphere MQ Programmable Command Formats
            Wellfleet Breath of Life
            Wellfleet Compression
            Wellfleet HDLC
            Who
            Windows 2000 DNS
            Wireless Session Protocol
            Wireless Transaction Protocol
            Wireless Transport Layer Security
            Wlan Certificate Extension
            X Display Manager Control Protocol
            X.228 OSI Reliable Transfer Service
            X.25
            X.25 over TCP
            X.29
            X.411 Message Transfer Service
            X.420 File Transfer Body Part
            X.420 Information Object
            X.501 Directory Operational Binding Management Protocol
            X.509 Authentication Framework
            X.509 Certificate Extensions
            X.509 Information Framework
            X.509 Selected Attribute Types
            X.519 Directory Access Protocol
            X.519 Directory Information Shadowing Protocol
            X.519 Directory System Protocol
            X.880 OSI Remote Operations Service
            X11
            X711 CMIP
            Xyplex
            Yahoo Messenger Protocol
            Yahoo YMSG Messenger Protocol
            Yellow Pages Bind
            Yellow Pages Passwd
            Yellow Pages Service
            Yellow Pages Transfer
            Zebra Protocol
            Zone Information Protocol
            eDonkey Protocol
            eXtensible Markup Language
            giFT Internet File Transfer
            h450
            iFCP
            iSCSI
            iSNS
            iTunes podCast rss elements
            rss

   Q 1.6: Are there any plans to support {your favorite protocol}?

   A: Support for particular protocols is added to Ethereal as a result of
   people contributing that support; no formal plans for adding support for
   particular protocols in particular future releases exist.

   Q 1.7: Can Ethereal read capture files from {your favorite network
   analyzer}?

   A: Support for particular protocols is added to Ethereal as a result of
   people contributing that support; no formal plans for adding support for
   particular protocols in particular future releases exist.

   If a network analyzer writes out files in a format already supported by
   Ethereal (e.g., in libpcap format), Ethereal may already be able to read
   them, unless the analyzer has added its own proprietary extensions to that
   format.

   If a network analyzer writes out files in its own format, or has added
   proprietary extensions to another format, in order to make Ethereal read
   captures from that network analyzer, we would either have to have a
   specification for the file format, or the extensions, sufficient to give us
   enough information to read the parts of the file relevant to Ethereal, or
   would need at least one capture file in that format AND a detailed textual
   analysis of the packets in that capture file (showing packet time stamps,
   packet lengths, and the top-level packet header) in order to
   reverse-engineer the file format.

   Note that there is no guarantee that we will be able to reverse-engineer a
   capture file format.

   Q 1.8: What devices can Ethereal use to capture packets?

   A: Ethereal can read live data from Ethernet, Token-Ring, FDDI, serial (PPP
   and SLIP) (if the OS on which it's running allows Ethereal to do so), 802.11
   wireless LAN (if the OS on which it's running allows Ethereal to do so), ATM
   connections (if the OS on which it's running allows Ethereal to do so), and
   the "any" device supported on Linux by recent versions of libpcap. See the
   list of supported capture media on various OSes for details (several items
   in there say "Unknown", which doesn't mean "Ethereal can't capture on them",
   it means "we don't know whether it can capture on them"; we expect that it
   will be able to capture on many of them, but we haven't tried it ourselves -
   if you try one of those types and it works, please send an update to
   ethereal-web[AT]ethereal.com).

   It can also read a variety of capture file formats, including:
     * AG Group/WildPackets EtherPeek/TokenPeek/AiroPeek/EtherHelp/Packet
       Grabber captures
     * AIX's iptrace captures
     * Accellent's 5Views LAN agent output
     * Cinco Networks NetXRay captures
     * Cisco Secure Intrusion Detection System IPLog output
     * CoSine L2 debug output
     * DBS Etherwatch VMS text output
     * Endace Measurement Systems' ERF format captures
     * EyeSDN USB S0 traces
     * HP-UX nettl captures
     * ISDN4BSD project i4btrace captures
     * Linux Bluez Bluetooth stack hcidump -w traces
     * Lucent/Ascend router debug output
     * Microsoft Network Monitor captures
     * Network Associates Windows-based Sniffer captures
     * Network General/Network Associates DOS-based Sniffer (compressed or
       uncompressed) captures
     * Network Instruments Observer version 9 captures
     * Novell LANalyzer captures
     * RADCOM's WAN/LAN analyzer captures
     * Shomiti/Finisar Surveyor captures
     * Toshiba's ISDN routers dump output
     * VMS TCPIPtrace/TCPtrace/UCX$TRACE output
     * Visual Networks' Visual UpTime traffic capture
     * libpcap, tcpdump and various other tools using tcpdump's capture format
     * snoop and atmsnoop output

   so that it can read traces from various network types, as captured by other
   applications or equipment, even if it cannot itself capture on those network
   types.

   Q 1.9: How do you pronounce Ethereal? Where did the name come from?

   A: The English pronunciation can be found in Merriam-Webster's online
   dictionary at
   http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=ethereal.

   According to the book "Computer Networks" by Andrew Tannenbaum, Ethernet was
   named after the "luminiferous ether" which was once thought to carry
   electromagnetic radiation. Taking that into consideration, Ethereal seemed
   like an appropriate name for something that started out as an Ethernet
   analyzer.

   Q 1.10: Does Ethereal work on Windows Me?

   A: Yes, but if you want to capture packets, you will need to install the
   latest version of WinPcap, as 2.02 and earlier versions of WinPcap didn't
   support Windows Me. You should also install the latest version of Ethereal
   as well.

   Q 1.11: Does Ethereal work on Windows XP?

   A: Yes, but if you want to capture packets, you will need to install the
   latest version of WinPcap, as 2.2 and earlier versions of WinPcap didn't
   support Windows XP.

2. Downloading Ethereal

   Q 2.1: Why do I get an error when I try to run the Win32 installer?

   A: The program you used to download it may have downloaded it incorrectly.
   Web browsers sometimes may do this.

   Try downloading it with, for example:
     * Wget, for which Windows binaries are available on the SunSITE FTP server
       at sunsite.tk or Heiko Herold's windows wget spot - wGetGUI offers a GUI
       interface that uses wget;
     * WS_FTP from Ipswitch,
     * the ftp command that comes with Windows.

   If you use the ftp command, make sure you do the transfer in binary mode
   rather than ASCII mode, by using the binary command before transferring the
   file.

   Q 2.2: Why can't I get to the WinPcap Web site in order to download WinPcap?

   A: As is the case with all Web sites, that site won't necessarily always be
   accessible; the server may be down due to a problem or down for maintenance,
   or there may be a networking problem between you and the server. You should
   try again later, or try the local mirror or the Wiretapped.net mirror.

   Note that current Ethereal releases include an installer for WinPcap.

3. Installing Ethereal

   Q 3.1: I installed an Ethereal RPM; why did it install TShark but not
   Ethereal?

   A: Older versions of the Red Hat RPMs for Wireshark put only the non-GUI
   components into the ethereal RPM, the fact that Wireshark is a GUI program
   nonwithstanding; newer versions make it a bit clearer by giving that RPM a
   name starting with wireshark-base.

   In those older versions, there's a separate ethereal-gnome RPM that includes
   GUI components such as Ethereal itself, the fact that Ethereal doesn't use
   GNOME nonwithstanding; newer versions make it a bit clearer by giving that
   RPM a name starting with wireshark-gtk+.

   Find the ethereal-gnome or ethereal-gtk+ RPM, and install that also.

4. Building Ethereal

   Q 4.1: I have libpcap installed; why did the configure script not find
   pcap.h or bpf.h?

   A: Are you sure pcap.h and bpf.h are installed? The official distribution of
   libpcap only installs the libpcap.a library file when "make install" is run.
   To install pcap.h and bpf.h, you must run "make install-incl". If you're
   running Debian or Redhat, make sure you have the "libpcap-dev" or
   "libpcap-devel" packages installed.

   It's also possible that pcap.h and bpf.h have been installed in a strange
   location. If this is the case, you may have to tweak aclocal.m4.

   Q 4.2: Why do I get the error

     dftest_DEPENDENCIES was already defined in condition TRUE, which implies
     condition HAVE_PLUGINS_TRUE

   when I try to build Ethereal from SVN or a SVN snapshot?

   A: You probably have automake 1.5 installed on your machine (the command
   automake --version will report the version of automake on your machine).
   There is a bug in that version of automake that causes this problem; upgrade
   to a later version of automake (1.6 or later).

   Q 4.3: Why does the linker fail with a number of "Output line too long."
   messages followed by linker errors when I try to buil Ethereal?

   A: The version of the sed command on your system is incapable of handling
   very long lines. On Solaris, for example, /usr/bin/sed has a line length
   limit too low to allow libtool to work; /usr/xpg4/bin/sed can handle it, as
   can GNU sed if you have it installed.

   On Solaris, changing your command search path to search /usr/xpg4/bin before
   /usr/bin should make the problem go away; on any platform on which you have
   this problem, installing GNU sed and changing your command path to search
   the directory in which it is installed before searching the directory with
   the version of sed that came with the OS should make the problem go away.

   Q 4.4: When I try to build Ethereal on Solaris, why does the link fail
   complaining that plugin_list is undefined?

   A: This appears to be due to a problem with some versions of the GTK+ and
   GLib packages from www.sunfreeware.org; un-install those packages, and try
   getting the 1.2.10 versions from that site, or the versions from The Written
   Word, or the versions from Sun's GNOME distribution, or the versions from
   the supplemental software CD that comes with the Solaris media kit, or build
   them from source from the GTK Web site. Then re-run the configuration
   script, and try rebuilding Ethereal. (If you get the 1.2.10 versions from
   www.sunfreeware.org, and the problem persists, un-install them and try
   installing one of the other versions mentioned.)

   Q 4.5: When I try to build Ethereal on Windows, why does the build fail
   because of conflicts between winsock.h and winsock2.h?

   A: As of Ethereal 0.9.5, you must install WinPcap 2.3 or later, and the
   corresponding version of the developer's pack, in order to be able to
   compile Ethereal; it will not compile with older versions of the developer's
   pack. The symptoms of this failure are conflicts between definitions in
   winsock.h and in winsock2.h; Ethereal uses winsock2.h, but pre-2.3 versions
   of the WinPcap developer's packet use winsock.h. (2.3 uses winsock2.h, so if
   Ethereal were to use winsock.h, it would not be able to build with current
   versions of the WinPcap developer's pack.)

   Note that the installed version of the developer's pack should be the same
   version as the version of WinPcap you have installed.

5. Starting Ethereal

   Q 5.1: Why does Ethereal crash with a Bus Error when I try to run it on
   Solaris 8?

   A: Some versions of the GTK+ library from www.sunfreeware.org appear to be
   buggy, causing Ethereal to drop core with a Bus Error. Un-install those
   packages, and try getting the 1.2.10 version from that site, or the version
   from The Written Word, or the version from Sun's GNOME distribution, or the
   version from the supplemental software CD that comes with the Solaris media
   kit, or build it from source from the GTK Web site. Update the GLib library
   to the 1.2.10 version, from the same source, as well. (If you get the 1.2.10
   versions from www.sunfreeware.org, and the problem persists, un-install them
   and try installing one of the other versions mentioned.)

   Similar problems may exist with older versions of GTK+ for earlier versions
   of Solaris.

   Q 5.2: When I run TShark with the "-x" option, why does it crash with an
   error

     "** ERROR **: file print.c: line 691 (print_line): should not be reached.

   A: This is a bug in Wireshark 0.10.0a, which is fixed in 0.10.1 and later
   releases. To work around the bug, don't use "-x" unless you're also using
   "-V"; note that "-V" produces a full dissection of each packet, so you might
   not want to use it.

   Q 5.3: When I run Ethereal on Windows NT, why does it die with a Dr. Watson
   error, reporting an "Integer division by zero" exception, when I start it?

   A: In at least some case, this appears to be due to using the default VGA
   driver; if that's not the correct driver for your video card, try running
   the correct driver for your video card.

   Q 5.4: When I try to run Ethereal, why does it complain about
   sprint_realloc_objid being undefined?

   A: Ethereal can only be linked with version 4.2.2 or later of UCD SNMP. Your
   version of Ethereal was dynamically linked with such a version of UCD SNMP;
   however, you have an older version of UCD SNMP installed, which means that
   when Wireshark is run, it tries to link to the older version, and fails. You
   will have to replace that version of UCD SNMP with version 4.2.2 or a later
   version.

   Q 5.5: When I try to run Ethereal on Windows, why does it fail to run with a
   complaint that it can't find packet.dll?

   A: In older versions of Ethereal, there were two binary distributions
   available for Windows, one that supported capturing packets, and one that
   didn't. The version that supported capturing packets required that you
   install the WinPcap driver; if you didn't install it, it would fail to run
   because it couldn't find packet.dll.

   The current version of Ethereal has only one binary distribution for
   Windows; that version will check whether WinPcap is installed and, if it's
   not, will disable support for packet capture.

   The WinPcap driver and libraries can be downloaded from the WinPcap Web
   site, the local mirror of the WinPcap Web site, or the Wiretapped.net mirror
   of the WinPcap site.

   Q 5.6: Why do I get the error

     Gdk-ERROR **: Palettized display (256-colour) mode not supported on
     Windows.
     aborting....

   when I try to run Ethereal on Windows?

   A: Wireshark is built using the GTK+ toolkit, which supports most
   UNIX-flavored OSes, and also supports Windows.

   Windows versions of Ethereal before 0.9.14 were built with an older version
   of that toolkit, which didn't support 256-color mode on Windows - it
   required HiColor (16-bit colors) or more.

   Windows versions of Ethereal 0.9.14 and later are built with a version of
   that toolkit that supports 256-color mode; upgrade to the current version of
   Ethereal if you want to run on a display in 256-color mode.

   Q 5.7: I've installed Ethereal from Fink on Mac OS X; why is it very slow to
   start up?

   A: When an application is installed on OS X, prior to 10.4, it is usually
   "prebound" to speed up launching the application. (That's what the
   "Optimizing" phase of installation is.) Fink normally performs prebinding
   automatically when you install a package. However, in some rare cases, for
   whatever reason the prebinding caches get corrupt, and then not only does
   prebinding fail, but startup actually becomes much slower, because the
   system tries in vain to perform prebinding "on the fly" as you launch the
   application. This fails, causing sometimes huge delays. To fix the
   prebinding caches, run the command
        sudo /sw/var/lib/fink/prebound/update-package-prebinding.pl -f

6. Crashes and other fatal errors

   Q 6.1: When I run Ethereal, why do I get an error

     Gtk-CRITICAL **: file gtkwindow.c: line 3107 (gtk_window_resize):
     assertion `height > 0' failed.

   A: This is a bug in Wireshark 0.10.5 and 0.10.5a, which is fixed in Wireshark
   0.10.6 and later releases.

   Q 6.2: I have an XXX network card on my machine; if I try to capture on it,
   why does my machine crash or reset itself?

   A: This is almost certainly a problem with one or more of:
     * the operating system you're using;
     * the device driver for the interface you're using;
     * the libpcap/WinPcap library and, if this is Windows, the WinPcap device
       driver;

   so:
     * if you are using Windows, see the WinPcap support page (or the local
       mirror of that page) - check the "Submitting bugs" section;
     * if you are using some Linux distribution, some version of BSD, or some
       other UNIX-flavored OS, you should report the problem to the company or
       organization that produces the OS (in the case of a Linux distribution,
       report the problem to whoever produces the distribution).

   Q 6.3: Why does my machine crash or reset itself when I select "Start" from
   the "Capture" menu or select "Preferences" from the "Edit" menu?

   A: Both of those operations cause Ethereal to try to build a list of the
   interfaces that it can open; it does so by getting a list of interfaces and
   trying to open them. There is probably an OS, driver, or, for Windows,
   WinPcap bug that causes the system to crash when this happens; see the
   previous question.

7. Capturing packets

   Q 7.1: When I use Ethereal to capture packets, why do I see only packets to
   and from my machine, or not see all the traffic I'm expecting to see from or
   to the machine I'm trying to monitor?

   A: This might be because the interface on which you're capturing is plugged
   into an Ethernet or Token Ring switch; on a switched network, unicast
   traffic between two ports will not necessarily appear on other ports - only
   broadcast and multicast traffic will be sent to all ports.

   Note that even if your machine is plugged into a hub, the "hub" may be a
   switched hub, in which case you're still on a switched network.

   Note also that on the Linksys Web site, they say that their auto-sensing
   hubs "broadcast the 10Mb packets to the port that operate at 10Mb only and
   broadcast the 100Mb packets to the ports that operate at 100Mb only", which
   would indicate that if you sniff on a 10Mb port, you will not see traffic
   coming sent to a 100Mb port, and vice versa. This problem has also been
   reported for Netgear dual-speed hubs, and may exist for other "auto-sensing"
   or "dual-speed" hubs.

   Some switches have the ability to replicate all traffic on all ports to a
   single port so that you can plug your analyzer into that single port to
   sniff all traffic. You would have to check the documentation for the switch
   to see if this is possible and, if so, to see how to do this. See the switch
   reference page on the Wireshark Wiki for information on some switches. (Note
   that it's a Wiki, so you can update or fix that information, or add
   additional information on those switches or information on new switches,
   yourself.)

   Note also that many firewall/NAT boxes have a switch built into them; this
   includes many of the "cable/DSL router" boxes. If you have a box of that
   sort, that has a switch with some number of Ethernet ports into which you
   plug machines on your network, and another Ethernet port used to connect to
   a cable or DSL modem, you can, at least, sniff traffic between the machines
   on your network and the Internet by plugging the Ethernet port on the router
   going to the modem, the Ethernet port on the modem, and the machine on which
   you're running Ethereal into a hub (make sure it's not a switching hub, and
   that, if it's a dual-speed hub, all three of those ports are running at the
   same speed.

   If your machine is not plugged into a switched network or a dual-speed hub,
   or it is plugged into a switched network but the port is set up to have all
   traffic replicated to it, the problem might be that the network interface on
   which you're capturing doesn't support "promiscuous" mode, or because your
   OS can't put the interface into promiscuous mode. Normally, network
   interfaces supply to the host only:
     * packets sent to one of that host's link-layer addresses;
     * broadcast packets;
     * multicast packets sent to a multicast address that the host has
       configured the interface to accept.

   Most network interfaces can also be put in "promiscuous" mode, in which they
   supply to the host all network packets they see. Ethereal will try to put
   the interface on which it's capturing into promiscuous mode unless the
   "Capture packets in promiscuous mode" option is turned off in the "Capture
   Options" dialog box, and TShark will try to put the interface on which
   it's capturing into promiscuous mode unless the -p option was specified.
   However, some network interfaces don't support promiscuous mode, and some
   OSes might not allow interfaces to be put into promiscuous mode.

   If the interface is not running in promiscuous mode, it won't see any
   traffic that isn't intended to be seen by your machine. It will see
   broadcast packets, and multicast packets sent to a multicast MAC address the
   interface is set up to receive.

   You should ask the vendor of your network interface whether it supports
   promiscuous mode. If it does, you should ask whoever supplied the driver for
   the interface (the vendor, or the supplier of the OS you're running on your
   machine) whether it supports promiscuous mode with that network interface.

   In the case of token ring interfaces, the drivers for some of them, on
   Windows, may require you to enable promiscuous mode in order to capture in
   promiscuous mode. See the Wireshark Wiki item on Token Ring capturing for
   details.

   In the case of wireless LAN interfaces, it appears that, when those
   interfaces are promiscuously sniffing, they're running in a significantly
   different mode from the mode that they run in when they're just acting as
   network interfaces (to the extent that it would be a significant effor for
   those drivers to support for promiscuously sniffing and acting as regular
   network interfaces at the same time), so it may be that Windows drivers for
   those interfaces don't support promiscuous mode.

   Q 7.2: When I capture with Ethereal, why can't I see any TCP packets other
   than packets to and from my machine, even though another analyzer on the
   network sees those packets?

   A: You're probably not seeing any packets other than unicast packets to or
   from your machine, and broadcast and multicast packets; a switch will
   normally send to a port only unicast traffic sent to the MAC address for the
   interface on that port, and broadcast and multicast traffic - it won't send
   to that port unicast traffic sent to a MAC address for some other interface
   - and a network interface not in promiscuous mode will receive only unicast
   traffic sent to the MAC address for that interface, broadcast traffic, and
   multicast traffic sent to a multicast MAC address the interface is set up to
   receive.

   TCP doesn't use broadcast or multicast, so you will only see your own TCP
   traffic, but UDP services may use broadcast or multicast so you'll see some
   UDP traffic - however, this is not a problem with TCP traffic, it's a
   problem with unicast traffic, as you also won't see all UDP traffic between
   other machines.

   I.e., this is probably the same question as this earlier one; see the
   response to that question.

   Q 7.3: Why am I only seeing ARP packets when I try to capture traffic?

   A: You're probably on a switched network, and running Ethereal on a machine
   that's not sending traffic to the switch and not being sent any traffic from
   other machines on the switch. ARP packets are often broadcast packets, which
   are sent to all switch ports.

   I.e., this is probably the same question as this earlier one; see the
   response to that question.

   Q 7.4: Why am I not seeing any traffic when I try to capture traffic?

   A: Is the machine running Ethereal sending out any traffic on the network
   interface on which you're capturing, or receiving any traffic on that
   network, or is there any broadcast traffic on the network or multicast
   traffic to a multicast group to which the machine running Ethereal belongs?

   If not, this may just be a problem with promiscuous sniffing, either due to
   running on a switched network or a dual-speed hub, or due to problems with
   the interface not supporting promiscuous mode; see the response to this
   earlier question.

   Otherwise, on Windows, see the response to this question and, on a
   UNIX-flavored OS, see the response to this question.

   Q 7.5: Can Ethereal capture on (my T1/E1 line, SS7 links, etc.)?

   A: Ethereal can only capture on devices supported by libpcap/WinPcap. On
   most OSes, only devices that can act as network interfaces of the type that
   support IP are supported as capture devices for libpcap/WinPcap, although
   the device doesn't necessarily have to be running as an IP interface in
   order to support traffic capture.

   On Linux and FreeBSD, libpcap 0.8 and later support the API for Endace
   Measurement Systems' DAG cards, so that a system with one of those cards,
   and its driver and libraries, installed can capture traffic with those cards
   with libpcap-based applications. You would either have to have a version of
   Ethereal built with that version of libpcap, or a dynamically-linked version
   of Ethereal and a shared libpcap library with DAG support, in order to do so
   with Ethereal. You should ask Endace whether that could be used to capture
   traffic on, for example, your T1/E1 link.
   See the SS7 capture setup page on the Wireshark Wiki for current information
   on capturing SS7 traffic on TDM links.

   Q 7.6: How do I put an interface into promiscuous mode?

   A: By not disabling promiscuous mode when running Ethereal or TShark.

   Note, however, that:
     * the form of promiscuous mode that libpcap (the library that programs
       such as tcpdump, Ethereal, etc. use to do packet capture) turns on will
       not necessarily be shown if you run ifconfig on the interface on a UNIX
       system;
     * some network interfaces might not support promiscuous mode, and some
       drivers might not allow promiscuous mode to be turned on - see this
       earlier question for more information on that;
     * the fact that you're not seeing any traffic, or are only seeing
       broadcast traffic, or aren't seeing any non-broadcast traffic other than
       traffic to or from the machine running Ethereal, does not mean that
       promiscuous mode isn't on - see this earlier question for more
       information on that.

   I.e., this is probably the same question as this earlier one; see the
   response to that question.

   Q 7.7: I can set a display filter just fine; why don't capture filters work?

   A: Capture filters currently use a different syntax than display filters.
   Here's the corresponding section from the ethereal(1) man page:

   "Display filters in Wireshark are very powerful; more fields are filterable
   in Wireshark than in other protocol analyzers, and the syntax you can use to
   create your filters is richer. As Ethereal progresses, expect more and more
   protocol fields to be allowed in display filters.

   Packet capturing is performed with the pcap library. The capture filter
   syntax follows the rules of the pcap library. This syntax is different from
   the display filter syntax."

   The capture filter syntax used by libpcap can be found in the tcpdump(8) man
   page.

   Q 7.8: I'm entering valid capture filters; why do I still get "parse error"
   errors?

   A: There is a bug in some versions of libpcap/WinPcap that cause it to
   report parse errors even for valid expressions if a previous filter
   expression was invalid and got a parse error.

   Try exiting and restarting Ethereal; if you are using a version of
   libpcap/WinPcap with this bug, this will "erase" its memory of the previous
   parse error. If the capture filter that got the "parse error" now works, the
   earlier error with that filter was probably due to this bug.

   The bug was fixed in libpcap 0.6; 0.4[.x] and 0.5[.x] versions of libpcap
   have this bug, but 0.6[.x] and later versions don't.

   Versions of WinPcap prior to 2.3 are based on pre-0.6 versions of libpcap,
   and have this bug; WinPcap 2.3 is based on libpcap 0.6.2, and doesn't have
   this bug.

   If you are running Ethereal on a UNIX-flavored platform, run "ethereal -v",
   or select "About Ethereal..." from the "Help" menu in Wireshark, to see what
   version of libpcap it's using. If it's not 0.6 or later, you will need
   either to upgrade your OS to get a later version of libpcap, or will need to
   build and install a later version of libpcap from the tcpdump.org Web site
   and then recompile Ethereal from source with that later version of libpcap.

   If you are running Ethereal on Windows with a pre-2.3 version of WinPcap,
   you will need to un-install WinPcap and then download and install WinPcap
   2.3.

   Q 7.9: How can I capture packets with CRC errors?

   A: Ethereal can capture only the packets that the packet capture library -
   libpcap on UNIX-flavored OSes, and the WinPcap port to Windows of libpcap on
   Windows - can capture, and libpcap/WinPcap can capture only the packets that
   the OS's raw packet capture mechanism (or the WinPcap driver, and the
   underlying OS networking code and network interface drivers, on Windows)
   will allow it to capture.

   Unless the OS always supplies packets with errors such as invalid CRCs to
   the raw packet capture mechanism, or can be configured to do so, invalid
   CRCs to the raw packet capture mechanism, Ethereal - and other programs that
   capture raw packets, such as tcpdump - cannot capture those packets. You
   will have to determine whether your OS needs to be so configured and, if so,
   can be so configured, configure it if necessary and possible, and make
   whatever changes to libpcap and the packet capture program you're using are
   necessary, if any, to support capturing those packets.

   Most OSes probably do not support capturing packets with invalid CRCs on
   Ethernet, and probably do not support it on most other link-layer types.
   Some drivers on some OSes do support it, such as some Ethernet drivers on
   FreeBSD; in those OSes, you might always get those packets, or you might
   only get them if you capture in promiscuous mode (you'd have to determine
   which is the case).

   Note that libpcap does not currently supply to programs that use it an
   indication of whether the packet's CRC was invalid (because the drivers
   themselves do not supply that information to the raw packet capture
   mechanism); therefore, Ethereal will not indicate which packets had CRC
   errors unless the FCS was captured (see the next question) and you're using
   Ethereal 0.9.15 and later, in which case Ethereal will check the CRC and
   indicate whether it's correct or not.

   Q 7.10: How can I capture entire frames, including the FCS?

   A: Ethereal can only capture data that the packet capture library - libpcap
   on UNIX-flavored OSes, and the WinPcap port to Windows of libpcap on Windows
   - can capture, and libpcap/WinPcap can capture only the data that the OS's
   raw packet capture mechanism (or the WinPcap driver, and the underlying OS
   networking code and network interface drivers, on Windows) will allow it to
   capture.

   For any particular link-layer network type, unless the OS supplies the FCS
   of a frame as part of the frame, or can be configured to do so, Ethereal -
   and other programs that capture raw packets, such as tcpdump - cannot
   capture the FCS of a frame. You will have to determine whether your OS needs
   to be so configured and, if so, can be so configured, configure it if
   necessary and possible, and make whatever changes to libpcap and the packet
   capture program you're using are necessary, if any, to support capturing the
   FCS of a frame.

   Most OSes do not support capturing the FCS of a frame on Ethernet, and
   probably do not support it on most other link-layer types. Some drivres on
   some OSes do support it, such as some (all?) Ethernet drivers on NetBSD and
   possibly the driver for Apple's gigabit Ethernet interface in Mac OS X; in
   those OSes, you might always get the FCS, or you might only get the FCS if
   you capture in promiscuous mode (you'd have to determine which is the case).

   Versions of Ethereal prior to 0.9.15 will not treat an Ethernet FCS in a
   captured packet as an FCS. 0.9.15 and later will attempt to determine
   whether there's an FCS at the end of the frame and, if it thinks there is,
   will display it as such, and will check whether it's the correct CRC-32
   value or not.

   Q 7.11: I'm capturing packets on a machine on a VLAN; why don't the packets
   I'm capturing have VLAN tags?

   A: You might be capturing on what might be called a "VLAN interface" - the
   way a particular OS makes VLANs plug into the networking stack might, for
   example, be to have a network device object for the physical interface,
   which takes VLAN packets, strips off the VLAN header and constructs an
   Ethernet header, and passes that packet to an internal network device object
   for the VLAN, which then passes the packets onto various higher-level
   protocol implementations.

   In order to see the raw Ethernet packets, rather than "de-VLANized" packets,
   you would have to capture not on the virtual interface for the VLAN, but on
   the interface corresponding to the physical network device, if possible. See
   the Wireshark Wiki item on VLAN capturing for details.

   Q 7.12: Why does Ethereal hang after I stop a capture?

   A: The most likely reason for this is that Wireshark is trying to look up an
   IP address in the capture to convert it to a name (so that, for example, it
   can display the name in the source address or destination address columns),
   and that lookup process is taking a very long time.

   Ethereal calls a routine in the OS of the machine on which it's running to
   convert of IP addresses to the corresponding names. That routine probably
   does one or more of:
     * a search of a system file listing IP addresses and names;
     * a lookup using DNS;
     * on UNIX systems, a lookup using NIS;
     * on Windows systems, a NetBIOS-over-TCP query.

   If a DNS server that's used in an address lookup is not responding, the
   lookup will fail, but will only fail after a timeout while the system
   routine waits for a reply.

   In addition, on Windows systems, if the DNS lookup of the address fails,
   either because the server isn't responding or because there are no records
   in the DNS that could be used to map the address to a name, a
   NetBIOS-over-TCP query will be made. That query involves sending a message
   to the NetBIOS-over-TCP name service on that machine, asking for the name
   and other information about the machine. If the machine isn't running
   software that responds to those queries - for example, many non-Windows
   machines wouldn't be running that software - the lookup will only fail after
   a timeout. Those timeouts can cause the lookup to take a long time.

   If you disable network address-to-name translation - for example, by turning
   off the "Enable network name resolution" option in the "Capture Options"
   dialog box for starting a network capture - the lookups of the address won't
   be done, which may speed up the process of reading the capture file after
   the capture is stopped. You can make that setting the default by selecting
   "Preferences" from the "Edit" menu, turning off the "Enable network name
   resolution" option in the "Name resolution" options in the preferences
   disalog box, and using the "Save" button in that dialog box; note that this
   will save all your current preference settings.

   If Ethereal hangs when reading a capture even with network name resolution
   turned off, there might, for example, be a bug in one of Ethereal's
   dissectors for a protocol causing it to loop infinitely. If you're not
   running the most recent release of Ethereal, you should first upgrade to
   that release, as, if there's a bug of that sort, it might've been fixed in a
   release after the one you're running. If the hang occurs in the most recent
   release of Ethereal, the bug should be reported to the Wireshark developers'
   mailing list at ethereal-dev@ethereal.com.

   On UNIX-flavored OSes, please try to force Ethereal to dump core, by sending
   it a SIGABRT signal (usually signal 6) with the kill command, and then get a
   stack trace if you have a debugger installed. A stack trace can be obtained
   by using your debugger (gdb in this example), the Wireshark binary, and the
   resulting core file. Here's an example of how to use the gdb command
   backtrace to do so.
        $ gdb ethereal core
        (gdb) backtrace
        ..... prints the stack trace
        (gdb) quit
        $

   The core dump file may be named "ethereal.core" rather than "core" on some
   platforms (e.g., BSD systems).

   Also, if at all possible, please send a copy of the capture file that caused
   the problem; when capturing packets, Ethereal normally writes captured
   packets to a temporary file, which will probably be in /tmp or /var/tmp on
   UNIX-flavored OSes, \TEMP on the main system disk (normally C:) on Windows
   9x/Me/NT 4.0, and \Documents and Settings\your login name\Local
   Settings\Temp on the main system disk on Windows 2000/Windows XP/Windows
   Server 2003, so the capture file will probably be there. It will have a name
   beginning with ether, with some mixture of letters and numbers after that.
   Please don't send a trace file greater than 1 MB when compressed; instead,
   make it available via FTP or HTTP, or say it's available but leave it up to
   a developer to ask for it. If the trace file contains sensitive information
   (e.g., passwords), then please do not send it.

8. Capturing packets on Windows

   Q 8.1: I'm running Ethereal on Windows; why does some network interface on
   my machine not show up in the list of interfaces in the "Interface:" field
   in the dialog box popped up by "Capture->Start", and/or why does Ethereal
   give me an error if I try to capture on that interface?

   A: If you are running Ethereal on Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP,
   or Windows Server 2003, and this is the first time you have run a
   WinPcap-based program (such as Ethereal, or TShark, or WinDump, or
   Analyzer, or...) since the machine was rebooted, you need to run that
   program from an account with administrator privileges; once you have run
   such a program, you will not need administrator privileges to run any such
   programs until you reboot.

   If you are running on Windows 95/98/Me, or if you are running on Windows NT
   4.0/Windows 2000/Windows XP/Windows Server 2003 and have administrator
   privileges or a WinPcap-based program has been run with those privileges
   since the machine rebooted, this problem might clear up if you completely
   un-install WinPcap and then re-install it.

   If that doesn't work, then note that Ethereal relies on the WinPcap library,
   on the WinPcap device driver, and on the facilities that come with the OS on
   which it's running in order to do captures.

   Therefore, if the OS, the WinPcap library, or the WinPcap driver don't
   support capturing on a particular network interface device, Ethereal won't
   be able to capture on that device.

   Note that:
    1. 2.02 and earlier versions of the WinPcap driver and library that
       Ethereal uses for packet capture didn't support Token Ring interfaces;
       versions 2.1 and later support Token Ring, and the current version of
       Ethereal works with (and, in fact, requires) WinPcap 2.1 or later.
       If you are having problems capturing on Token Ring interfaces, and you
       have WinPcap 2.02 or an earlier version of WinPcap installed, you should
       uninstall WinPcap, download and install the current version of WinPcap,
       and then install the latest version of Ethereal.
    2. On Windows 95, 98, or Me, sometimes more than one interface will be
       given the same name; if that is the case, you will only be able to
       capture on one of those interfaces - it's not clear to which one the
       name, when used in a WinPcap-based application, will refer. For example,
       if you have a PPP serial interface and a VPN interface, they might show
       up with the same name, for example "ppp-mac", and if you try to capture
       on "ppp-mac", it might not capture on the interface you're currently
       using. In that case, you might, for example, have to remove the VPN
       interface from the system in order to capture on the PPP serial
       interface.
    3. WinPcap 2.3 has problems supporting PPP WAN interfaces on Windows NT
       4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003, and, to avoid
       those problems, support for PPP WAN interfaces on those versions of
       Windows has been disabled in WinPcap 3.0. Regular dial-up lines, ISDN
       lines, ADSL connections using PPPoE or PPPoA, and various other lines
       such as T1/E1 lines are all PPP interfaces, so those interfaces might
       not show up on the list of interfaces in the "Capture Options" dialog on
       those OSes.
       On Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003, but not Windows NT
       4.0 or Windows Vista Beta 1, you should be able to capture on the
       "GenericDialupAdapter" with WinPcap 3.1. (3.1 beta releases called it
       the "NdisWanAdapter"; if you're using a 3.1 beta release, you should
       un-install it and install the final 3.1 release.) See the Wireshark Wiki
       item on PPP capturing for details.
    4. WinPcap prior to 3.0 does not support multiprocessor machines (note that
       machines with a single multi-threaded processor, such as Intel's new
       multi-threaded x86 processors, are multiprocessor machines as far as the
       OS and WinPcap are concerned), and recent 2.x versions of WinPcap refuse
       to operate if they detect that they're running on a multiprocessor
       machine, which means that they may not show any network interfaces. You
       will need to use WinPcap 3.0 to capture on a multiprocessor machine.

   If an interface doesn't show up in the list of interfaces in the
   "Interface:" field, and you know the name of the interface, try entering
   that name in the "Interface:" field and capturing on that device.

   If the attempt to capture on it succeeds, the interface is somehow not being
   reported by the mechanism Ethereal uses to get a list of interfaces. Try
   listing the interfaces with WinDump; see the WinDump Web site or the local
   mirror of the WinDump Web site for information on using WinDump.

   You would run WinDump with the -D flag; if it lists the interface, please
   report this to ethereal-dev@ethereal.com giving full details of the problem,
   including
     * the operating system you're using, and the version of that operating
       system;
     * the type of network device you're using;
     * the output of WinDump.

   If WinDump does not list the interface, this is almost certainly a problem
   with one or more of:
     * the operating system you're using;
     * the device driver for the interface you're using;
     * the WinPcap library and/or the WinPcap device driver;

   so first check the WinPcap FAQ, the local mirror of that FAQ, or the
   Wiretapped.net mirror of that FAQ, to see if your problem is mentioned
   there. If not, then see the WinPcap support page (or the local mirror of
   that page) - check the "Submitting bugs" section.

   If you are having trouble capturing on a particular network interface, first
   try capturing on that device with WinDump; see the WinDump Web site or the
   local mirror of the WinDump Web site for information on using WinDump.

   If you can capture on the interface with WinDump, send mail to
   ethereal-users@ethereal.com giving full details of the problem, including
     * the operating system you're using, and the version of that operating
       system;
     * the type of network device you're using;
     * the error message you get from Ethereal.

   If you cannot capture on the interface with WinDump, this is almost
   certainly a problem with one or more of:
     * the operating system you're using;
     * the device driver for the interface you're using;
     * the WinPcap library and/or the WinPcap device driver;

   so first check the WinPcap FAQ, the local mirror of that FAQ, or the
   Wiretapped.net mirror of that FAQ, to see if your problem is mentioned
   there. If not, then see the WinPcap support page (or the local mirror of
   that page) - check the "Submitting bugs" section.

   You may also want to ask the ethereal-users@ethereal.com and the
   winpcap-users@winpcap.org mailing lists to see if anybody happens to know
   about the problem and know a workaround or fix for the problem. (Note that
   you will have to subscribe to that list in order to be allowed to mail to
   it; see the WinPcap support page, or the local mirror of that page, for
   information on the mailing list.) In your mail, please give full details of
   the problem, as described above, and also indicate that the problem occurs
   with WinDump, not just with Ethereal.

   Q 8.2: I'm running Ethereal on Windows; why do no network interfaces show up
   in the list of interfaces in the "Interface:" field in the dialog box popped
   up by "Capture->Start"?

   A: This is really the same question as the previous one; see the response to
   that question.

   Q 8.3: I'm running Ethereal on Windows; why doesn't my serial port/ADSL
   modem/ISDN modem show up in the list of interfaces in the "Interface:" field
   in the dialog box popped up by "Capture->Start"?

   A: Internet access on those devices is often done with the Point-to-Point
   (PPP) protocol; WinPcap 2.3 has problems supporting PPP WAN interfaces on
   Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003, and, to
   avoid those problems, support for PPP WAN interfaces on those versions of
   Windows has been disabled in WinPcap 3.0.

   On Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003, but not Windows NT 4.0
   or Windows Vista Beta 1, you should be able to capture on the
   "GenericDialupAdapter" with WinPcap 3.1. (3.1 beta releases called it the
   "NdisWanAdapter"; if you're using a 3.1 beta release, you should un-install
   it and install the final 3.1 release.) See the Wireshark Wiki item on PPP
   capturing for details.

   Q 8.4: I'm running Ethereal on Windows NT 4.0/Windows 2000/Windows
   XP/Windows Server 2003; my machine has a PPP (dial-up POTS, ISDN, etc.)
   interface, and it shows up in the "Interface" item in the "Capture Options"
   dialog box. Why can no packets be sent on or received from that network
   while I'm trying to capture traffic on that interface?

   A: Some versions of WinPcap have problems with PPP WAN interfaces on Windows
   NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003; one symptom that
   may be seen is that attempts to capture in promiscuous mode on the interface
   cause the interface to be incapable of sending or receiving packets. You can
   disable promiscuous mode using the -p command-line flag or the item in the
   "Capture Preferences" dialog box, but this may mean that outgoing packets,
   or incoming packets, won't be seen in the capture.

   On Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003, but not Windows NT 4.0
   or Windows Vista Beta 1, you should be able to capture on the
   "GenericDialupAdapter" with WinPcap 3.1. (3.1 beta releases called it the
   "NdisWanAdapter"; if you're using a 3.1 beta release, you should un-install
   it and install the final 3.1 release.) See the Wireshark Wiki item on PPP
   capturing for details.

   Q 8.5: I'm running Ethereal on Windows 95/98/Me, on a machine with more than
   one network adapter of the same type; why does Ethereal show all of those
   adapters with the same name, not letting me use any of those adapters other
   than the first one?

   A: Unfortunately, Windows 95/98/Me gives the same name to multiple instances
   of the type of same network adapter. Therefore, WinPcap cannot distinguish
   between them, so a WinPcap-based application can capture only on the first
   such interface; Wireshark is a libpcap/WinPcap-based application.

   Q 8.6: I'm running Ethereal on Windows; why am I not seeing any traffic
   being sent by the machine running Ethereal?

   A: If you are running some form of VPN client software, it might be causing
   this problem; people have seen this problem when they have Check Point's VPN
   software installed on their machine. If that's the cause of the problem, you
   will have to remove the VPN software in order to have Ethereal (or any other
   application using WinPcap) see outgoing packets; unfortunately, neither we
   nor the WinPcap developers know any way to make WinPcap and the VPN software
   work well together.

   Also, some drivers for Windows (especially some wireless network interface
   drivers) apparently do not, when running in promiscuous mode, arrange that
   outgoing packets are delivered to the software that requested that the
   interface run promiscuously; try turning promiscuous mode off.

   Q 8.7: When I capture on Windows in promiscuous mode, I can see packets
   other than those sent to or from my machine; however, those packets show up
   with a "Short Frame" indication, unlike packets to or from my machine. What
   should I do to arrange that I see those packets in their entirety?

   A: In at least some cases, this appears to be the result of PGPnet running
   on the network interface on which you're capturing; turn it off on that
   interface.

   Q 8.8: I'm capturing packets on {Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me}; why
   are the time stamps on packets wrong?

   A: This is due to a bug in WinPcap. The bug should be fixed in WinPcap 3.0
   and later releases.

   Q 8.9: I'm trying to capture 802.11 traffic on Windows; why am I not seeing
   any packets?

   A: At least some 802.11 card drivers on Windows appear not to see any
   packets if they're running in promiscuous mode. Try turning promiscuous mode
   off; you'll only be able to see packets sent by and received by your
   machine, not third-party traffic, and it'll look like Ethernet traffic and
   won't include any management or control frames, but that's a limitation of
   the card drivers.

   See MicroLogix's list of cards supported with WinPcap for information on
   support of various adapters and drivers with WinPcap.

   Q 8.10: I'm trying to capture 802.11 traffic on Windows; why am I seeing
   packets received by the machine on which I'm capturing traffic, but not
   packets sent by that machine?

   A: This appears to be another problem with promiscuous mode; try turning it
   off.

   Q 8.11: I'm trying to capture Ethernet VLAN traffic on Windows, and I'm
   capturing on a "raw" Ethernet device rather than a "VLAN interface", so that
   I can see the VLAN headers; why am I seeing packets received by the machine
   on which I'm capturing traffic, but not packets sent by that machine?

   A: The way the Windows networking code works probably means that packets are
   sent on a "VLAN interface" rather than the "raw" device, so packets sent by
   the machine will only be seen when you capture on the "VLAN interface". If
   so, you will be unable to see outgoing packets when capturing on the "raw"
   device, so you are stuck with a choice between seeing VLAN headers and
   seeing outgoing packets.

9. Capturing packets on UN*Xes

   Q 9.1: I'm running Ethereal on a UNIX-flavored OS; why does some network
   interface on my machine not show up in the list of interfaces in the
   "Interface:" field in the dialog box popped up by "Capture->Start", and/or
   why does Ethereal give me an error if I try to capture on that interface?

   A: You may need to run Ethereal from an account with sufficient privileges
   to capture packets, such as the super-user account, or may need to give your
   account sufficient privileges to capture packets. Only those interfaces that
   Ethereal can open for capturing show up in that list; if you don't have
   sufficient privileges to capture on any interfaces, no interfaces will show
   up in the list. See the Wireshark Wiki item on capture privileges for details
   on how to give a particular account or account group capture privileges on
   platforms where that can be done.

   If you are running Ethereal from an account with sufficient privileges, then
   note that Ethereal relies on the libpcap library, and on the facilities that
   come with the OS on which it's running in order to do captures. On some
   OSes, those facilities aren't present by default; see the Wireshark Wiki item
   on adding capture support for details.

   And, even if you're running with an account that has sufficient privileges
   to capture, and capture support is present in your OS, if the OS or the
   libpcap library don't support capturing on a particular network interface
   device or particular types of devices, Ethereal won't be able to capture on
   that device.

   On Solaris, note that libpcap 0.6.2 and earlier didn't support Token Ring
   interfaces; the current version, 0.7.2, does support Token Ring, and the
   current version of Ethereal works with libcap 0.7.2 and later.

   If an interface doesn't show up in the list of interfaces in the
   "Interface:" field, and you know the name of the interface, try entering
   that name in the "Interface:" field and capturing on that device.

   If the attempt to capture on it succeeds, the interface is somehow not being
   reported by the mechanism Ethereal uses to get a list of interfaces; please
   report this to ethereal-dev@ethereal.com giving full details of the problem,
   including
     * the operating system you're using, and the version of that operating
       system (for Linux, give both the version number of the kernel and the
       name and version number of the distribution you're using);
     * the type of network device you're using.

   If you are having trouble capturing on a particular network interface, and
   you've made sure that (on platforms that require it) you've arranged that
   packet capture support is present, as per the above, first try capturing on
   that device with tcpdump.

   If you can capture on the interface with tcpdump, send mail to
   ethereal-users@ethereal.com giving full details of the problem, including
     * the operating system you're using, and the version of that operating
       system (for Linux, give both the version number of the kernel and the
       name and version number of the distribution you're using);
     * the type of network device you're using;
     * the error message you get from Ethereal.

   If you cannot capture on the interface with tcpdump, this is almost
   certainly a problem with one or more of:
     * the operating system you're using;
     * the device driver for the interface you're using;
     * the libpcap library;

   so you should report the problem to the company or organization that
   produces the OS (in the case of a Linux distribution, report the problem to
   whoever produces the distribution).

   You may also want to ask the ethereal-users@ethereal.com and the
   tcpdump-workers@tcpdump.org mailing lists to see if anybody happens to know
   about the problem and know a workaround or fix for the problem. In your
   mail, please give full details of the problem, as described above, and also
   indicate that the problem occurs with tcpdump not just with Ethereal.

   Q 9.2: I'm running Ethereal on a UNIX-flavored OS; why do no network
   interfaces show up in the list of interfaces in the "Interface:" field in
   the dialog box popped up by "Capture->Start"?

   A: This is really the same question as the previous one; see the response to
   that question.

   Q 9.3: I'm capturing packets on Linux; why do the time stamps have only
   100ms resolution, rather than 1us resolution?

   A: Ethereal gets time stamps from libpcap/WinPcap, and libpcap/WinPcap get
   them from the OS kernel, so Ethereal - and any other program using libpcap,
   such as tcpdump - is at the mercy of the time stamping code in the OS for
   time stamps.

   At least on x86-based machines, Linux can get high-resolution time stamps on
   newer processors with the Time Stamp Counter (TSC) register; for example,
   Intel x86 processors, starting with the Pentium Pro, and including all x86
   processors since then, have had a TSC, and other vendors probably added the
   TSC at some point to their families of x86 processors.

   The Linux kernel must be configured with the CONFIG_X86_TSC option enabled
   in order to use the TSC. Make sure this option is enabled in your kernel.

   In addition, some Linux distributions may have bugs in their versions of the
   kernel that cause packets not to be given high-resolution time stamps even
   if the TSC is enabled. See, for example, bug 61111 for Red Hat Linux 7.2. If
   your distribution has a bug such as this, you may have to run a standard
   kernel from kernel.org in order to get high-resolution time stamps.

10. Capturing packets on wireless LANs

   Q 10.1: How can I capture raw 802.11 frames, including non-data (management,
   beacon) frames?

   A: That depends on the operating system on which you're running, and on the
   802.11 interface on which you're capturing.

   This would probably require that you capture in promiscuous mode or in the
   mode called "monitor mode" or "RFMON mode". On some platforms, or with some
   cards, this might require that you capture in monitor mode - promiscuous
   mode might not be sufficient. If you want to capture traffic on networks
   other than the one with which you're associated, you will have to capture in
   monitor mode.

   Not all operating systems support capturing non-data packets and, even on
   operating systems that do support it, not all drivers, and thus not all
   interfaces, support it. Even on those that do, monitor mode might not be
   supported by the operating system or by the drivers for all interfaces.

   NOTE: an interface running in monitor mode will, on most if not all
   platforms, not be able to act as a regular network interface; putting it
   into monitor mode will, in effect, take your machine off of whatever network
   it's on as long as the interface is in monitor mode, allowing it only to
   passively capture packets.

   This means that you should disable name resolution when capturing in monitor
   mode; otherwise, when Ethereal (or TShark, or tcpdump) tries to display
   IP addresses as host names, it will probably block for a long time trying to
   resolve the name because it will not be able to communicate with any DNS or
   NIS servers.

   See the Wireshark Wiki item on 802.11 capturing for details.

   Q 10.2: How do I capture on an 802.11 device in monitor mode?

   A: Whether you will be able to capture in monitor mode depends on the
   operating system, adapter, and driver you're using. See the previous
   question for information on monitor mode, including a link to the Ethereal
   Wiki page that gives details on 802.11 capturing.

11. Viewing traffic

   Q 11.1: Why am I seeing lots of packets with incorrect TCP checksums?

   A: If the packets that have incorrect TCP checksums are all being sent by
   the machine on which Wireshark is running, this is probably because the
   network interface on which you're capturing does TCP checksum offloading.
   That means that the TCP checksum is added to the packet by the network
   interface, not by the OS's TCP/IP stack; when capturing on an interface,
   packets being sent by the host on which you're capturing are directly handed
   to the capture interface by the OS, which means that they are handed to the
   capture interface without a TCP checksum being added to them.

   The only way to prevent this from happening would be to disable TCP checksum
   offloading, but
    1. that might not even be possible on some OSes;
    2. that could reduce networking performance significantly.

   However, you can disable the check that Ethereal does of the TCP checksum,
   so that it won't report any packets as having TCP checksum errors, and so
   that it won't refuse to do TCP reassembly due to a packet having an
   incorrect TCP checksum. That can be set as an Ethereal preference by
   selecting "Preferences" from the "Edit" menu, opening up the "Protocols"
   list in the left-hand pane of the "Preferences" dialog box, selecting "TCP",
   from that list, turning off the "Check the validity of the TCP checksum when
   possible" option, clicking "Save" if you want to save that setting in your
   preference file, and clicking "OK".

   It can also be set on the Wireshark or TShark command line with a -o
   tcp.check_checksum:false command-line flag, or manually set in your
   preferences file by adding a tcp.check_checksum:false line.

   Q 11.2: I've just installed Ethereal, and the traffic on my local LAN is
   boring. Where can I find more interesting captures?

   A: We have a collection of strange and exotic sample capture files at
   http://wiki.ethereal.com/SampleCaptures

   Q 11.3: Why doesn't Ethereal correctly identify RTP packets? It shows them
   only as UDP.

   A: Ethereal can identify a UDP datagram as containing a packet of a
   particular protocol running atop UDP only if
    1. The protocol in question has a particular standard port number, and the
       UDP source or destination port number is that port
    2. Packets of that protocol can be identified by looking for a "signature"
       of some type in the packet - i.e., some data that, if Ethereal finds it
       in some particular part of a packet, means that the packet is almost
       certainly a packet of that type.
    3. Some other traffic earlier in the capture indicated that, for example,
       UDP traffic between two particular addresses and ports will be RTP
       traffic.

   RTP doesn't have a standard port number, so 1) doesn't work; it doesn't, as
   far as I know, have any "signature", so 2) doesn't work.

   That leaves 3). If there's RTSP traffic that sets up an RTP session, then,
   at least in some cases, the RTSP dissector will set things up so that
   subsequent RTP traffic will be identified. Currently, that's the only place
   we do that; there may be other places.

   However, there will always be places where Wireshark is simply incapable of
   deducing that a given UDP flow is RTP; a mechanism would be needed to allow
   the user to specify that a given conversation should be treated as RTP. As
   of Ethereal 0.8.16, such a mechanism exists; if you select a UDP or TCP
   packet, the right mouse button menu will have a "Decode As..." menu item,
   which will pop up a dialog box letting you specify that the source port, the
   destination port, or both the source and destination ports of the packet
   should be dissected as some particular protocol.

   Q 11.4: Why doesn't Ethereal show Yahoo Messenger packets in captures that
   contain Yahoo Messenger traffic?

   A: Ethereal only recognizes as Yahoo Messenger traffic packets to or from
   TCP port 3050 that begin with "YPNS", "YHOO", or "YMSG". TCP segments that
   start with the middle of a Yahoo Messenger packet that takes more than one
   TCP segment will not be recognized as Yahoo Messenger packets (even if the
   TCP segment also contains the beginning of another Yahoo Messenger packet).

12. Filtering traffic

   Q 12.1: I saved a filter and tried to use its name to filter the display;
   why do I get an "Unexpected end of filter string" error?

   A: You cannot use the name of a saved display filter as a filter. To filter
   the display, you can enter a display filter expression - not the name of a
   saved display filter - in the "Filter:" box at the bottom of the display,
   and type the key or press the "Apply" button (that does not require you to
   have a saved filter), or, if you want to use a saved filter, you can press
   the "Filter:" button, select the filter in the dialog box that pops up, and
   press the "OK" button.

   Q 12.2: How can I search for, or filter, packets that have a particular
   string anywhere in them?

   A: If you want to do this when capturing, you can't. That's a feature that
   would be hard to implement in capture filters without changes to the capture
   filter code, which, on many platforms, is in the OS kernel and, on other
   platforms, is in the libpcap library.

   In releases prior to 0.9.14, you also can't search for, or filter, packets
   containing a particular string even after you've captured them.

   In 0.9.14, you can search for, but not filter, packets that have a
   particular string; this has been added to the "Find Frame" dialog ("Find
   Frame" under the "Edit" menu, or control-F).

   In 0.9.15 and later, you can search for those packets using either the
   mechanism introduced in 0.9.14 or using the new "contains" operator in
   filter expressions, which lets you search the entire packet or text string
   or byte string fields in the packet; the "contains" operator can also be
   used in expressions used to filter the display.

   Q 12.3: How do I filter a capture to see traffic for virus XXX?

   A: For some viruses/worms there might be a capture filter to recognize the
   virus traffic. Check the CaptureFilters page on the Wireshark Wiki to see if
   anybody's added such a filter.

   Note that Ethereal was not designed to be an intrusion detection system; you
   might be able to use it as an IDS, but in most cases software designed to be
   an IDS, such as Snort or Prelude, will probably work better.

   The Bleeding Edge of Snort has a collection of signatures for Snort to
   detect various viruses, worms, and the like.

   Please send support questions about Ethereal to the
   ethereal-users[AT]ethereal.com mailing list.
   For corrections/additions/suggestions for this web page (and not Ethereal
   support questions), please send email to ethereal-web[AT]ethereal.com.
   Last modified: Thu, February 23 2006.
   "Ethereal" and the "e" logo are registered trademarks of Ethereal, Inc.